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Transcript
Chemistry Fundamentals
Biology 9
Sumner HS
Biosphere
Ecosystems
Communities
Populations
Organism/Individual
Organs
Cells
Organelles
Polymers
Molecules
Atoms
Unit Theme
Structure→Properties→Function
Structure: How something is built or
constructed. The parts and how they are
connected.
Properties: Qualities, characteristics, traits, how
it behaves or interacts.
Functions: what job it does, how a property is
used, how it contributes to the “work” of life
Bathroom
Structure
Walls, Sink, Counter, Tub, Door,
Toilet
Properties
Controls water, enclosed room.
Function
Ideal for bathing etc. in privacy
and not making a mess.
For the Chemistry of Life...
Structure
Properties
Function
Parts
Formula
Arrangement
Bonds
Strength
Energy
Interactions
How does it
contribute
to life functions?
Big Idea: Atoms
Definition for Levels of Organization?
The smallest form of unique matter is an
atom.
A bar of gold...
Break a single atom down to smaller parts and
they aren’t different any more.
Greek origin: atomos = indivisible
An Atomic Model
Three sub-atomic
particles
Electrons (e-)
Protons (p+)
Neutrons (n)
Which element is
this?
The protons and
neutrons in the center
make up the nucleus.
PhEt Simulation – Build an Atom
Atomic Properties
The number of protons (part of the structure) is
key to determining what the properties of the
element are.
Color
Atomic size
Density
Ease of reaction with other elements.
State (gas, liquid, solid, metal...)
Let’s “Meet The Elements” – by
They might be giants
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=Uy0m7jnyv6U
PIT (putting it together): What
are some key things to know
about atoms?
Chem Fundamentals: Atoms
Smallest level of organiz
Gold bar example
Indivisible
Parts
Protons, pos/Neutrons, neutral/Electrons, neg
Nucleus = protons + neutrons
Electrons in orbit
Protons determine properties
Atomic Interactions
What we experience around us results from the
interactions of atoms
Atoms combine together to make?
Molecules.
These interactions are determined by...
the properties of the atoms.
what happens with the electrons.
For life...
We are interested in a few key properties of
atoms:
How many bonds they can form
The properties of bonds they form with other
atoms.
This determines the kinds of molecules that
are formed.
Our primary parts
You can use the memory device “CHNOPS” to
remember the most common elements of life
Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen,
Phosphorous and Sulfur.
We’re going to look more closely at three of
these
Hydrogen & Oxygen Periodic Table Videos
Carbon Connections Video & Questions
Periodic Table of Videos
We’ll look at two elements: Hydrogen & Oxygen
As you watch try to capture info about:
The number of electrons (structure)
The formula it’s often found in (structure)
How “reactive” it is (properties)
Any other properties (color, state, density...)
http://www.periodicvideos.com/index.htm
Hydrogen
# of electrons
Formula
How reactive?
Other Properties
Oxygen
Carbon Connections Video
Half-sheet with table and questions to complete
Write your answers ON YOUR OWN PAPER!
I will collect these when we are finished.
This is an Assignment Organizer item.
Carbon cycle video
• http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/
Atomic structure: electrons
Electrons are arranged in “shells” around the
nucleus.
The filling sometimes leaves unpaired electrons.
“Shells just want to be full”
Atoms are “happy” when their shells are full.
Actually are more stable.
Key idea: Unpaired electrons are
an opportunity to share electrons
and create a bond.
What trends or patterns do you notice in this table?
How many chances to share?
1
2
3
4
PIT Summary: Atomic Properties
Three particles: p+ & n in nucleus, e- in “orbit.”
Protons have primary influence on atomic
properties.
Electrons interact with “the universe.”
Shells just want to be full to be stable.
Electronegativity (greediness) is a powerful
atomic property.