Chemistry Fundamentals Biology 9 Sumner HS Biosphere Ecosystems Communities Populations Organism/Individual Organs Cells Organelles Polymers Molecules Atoms Unit Theme Structure→Properties→Function Structure: How something is built or constructed. The parts and how they are connected. Properties: Qualities, characteristics, traits, how it behaves or interacts. Functions: what job it does, how a property is used, how it contributes to the “work” of life Bathroom Structure Walls, Sink, Counter, Tub, Door, Toilet Properties Controls water, enclosed room. Function Ideal for bathing etc. in privacy and not making a mess. For the Chemistry of Life... Structure Properties Function Parts Formula Arrangement Bonds Strength Energy Interactions How does it contribute to life functions? Big Idea: Atoms Definition for Levels of Organization? The smallest form of unique matter is an atom. A bar of gold... Break a single atom down to smaller parts and they aren’t different any more. Greek origin: atomos = indivisible An Atomic Model Three sub-atomic particles Electrons (e-) Protons (p+) Neutrons (n) Which element is this? The protons and neutrons in the center make up the nucleus. PhEt Simulation – Build an Atom Atomic Properties The number of protons (part of the structure) is key to determining what the properties of the element are. Color Atomic size Density Ease of reaction with other elements. State (gas, liquid, solid, metal...) Let’s “Meet The Elements” – by They might be giants https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Uy0m7jnyv6U PIT (putting it together): What are some key things to know about atoms? Chem Fundamentals: Atoms Smallest level of organiz Gold bar example Indivisible Parts Protons, pos/Neutrons, neutral/Electrons, neg Nucleus = protons + neutrons Electrons in orbit Protons determine properties Atomic Interactions What we experience around us results from the interactions of atoms Atoms combine together to make? Molecules. These interactions are determined by... the properties of the atoms. what happens with the electrons. For life... We are interested in a few key properties of atoms: How many bonds they can form The properties of bonds they form with other atoms. This determines the kinds of molecules that are formed. Our primary parts You can use the memory device “CHNOPS” to remember the most common elements of life Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous and Sulfur. We’re going to look more closely at three of these Hydrogen & Oxygen Periodic Table Videos Carbon Connections Video & Questions Periodic Table of Videos We’ll look at two elements: Hydrogen & Oxygen As you watch try to capture info about: The number of electrons (structure) The formula it’s often found in (structure) How “reactive” it is (properties) Any other properties (color, state, density...) http://www.periodicvideos.com/index.htm Hydrogen # of electrons Formula How reactive? Other Properties Oxygen Carbon Connections Video Half-sheet with table and questions to complete Write your answers ON YOUR OWN PAPER! I will collect these when we are finished. This is an Assignment Organizer item. Carbon cycle video • http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/ Atomic structure: electrons Electrons are arranged in “shells” around the nucleus. The filling sometimes leaves unpaired electrons. “Shells just want to be full” Atoms are “happy” when their shells are full. Actually are more stable. Key idea: Unpaired electrons are an opportunity to share electrons and create a bond. What trends or patterns do you notice in this table? How many chances to share? 1 2 3 4 PIT Summary: Atomic Properties Three particles: p+ & n in nucleus, e- in “orbit.” Protons have primary influence on atomic properties. Electrons interact with “the universe.” Shells just want to be full to be stable. Electronegativity (greediness) is a powerful atomic property.