Download Elements and Atoms

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

History of molecular theory wikipedia, lookup

Unbinilium wikipedia, lookup

Ununennium wikipedia, lookup

Extended periodic table wikipedia, lookup

Tennessine wikipedia, lookup

Periodic table wikipedia, lookup

Chemical element wikipedia, lookup

Dubnium wikipedia, lookup

Oganesson wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Elements & Atoms
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
History
•
The ancient Greeks started the atomic ball rolling. Democritus was the first to
theorize that matter was made of small pieces. Leucippus was the first to use the
term atom (atomon), which meant "indivisible" in Greek. We now know that the
atom is divisible and is made of even smaller pieces — the puzzling subatomic
particles. Because the Greeks had no way to test and verify their theories, we had
to wait almost 2000 years to confirm that atoms do exist, though not quite the way
the Greeks imagined.
•
In the 16th century, Robert Boyle came up with the notion that there were
elements that could not be broken down any further, but it was not until the 18th
century that John Dalton reasoned that elements might be made of atoms.
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
An atom refresher
• Matter is anything that takes up space and has
mass.
• All matter is made of atoms.
• The Atom is the building block of matter, sort of
how bricks are the building blocks of houses.
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
An atom refresher
• An atom has three parts:
• Proton = subatomic particle
with a positive charge (+),
found in the nucleus
• Neutron = subatomic
particle with no charge (0),
found in the nucleus
• Electron = subatomic
particle with a negative
charge (-), found in the
electron cloud orbiting the
nucleus
• The center of the atom is a
place called the nucleus.
Picture from
http://education.jlab.org/qa/atom_model_03.gif
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
What are elements?
• Elements are the
alphabet to the language
of molecules.
• To make molecules, you
must have elements.
• Elements are made of
atoms. While the atoms
may have different
weights and organization,
they are all built in the
same way.
Information & picture from Chem4kids at
http://www.chem4kids.com/files/atom_structure.html
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
Graphic from http://education.jlab.org/atomtour/fact2.html
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
More about Elements..
• Atoms are the building
blocks of all matter. Each
element is a type of atom.
• The periodic table is a
collection of all the known
substances. It’s a little like
the alphabet of chemistry.
• The periodic table tells us
several things…
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
Periodic Table
Atomic Number:
Number of protons
and it is also the
number of electrons
in an atom of an
element.
Element’s Symbol:
An abbreviation for
the element.
8
O
Oxygen
Elements Name
Atomic Mass/Weight:
Number of protons +
neutrons.
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
16
Atom Models
• There are two models of the atoms we will be
using in class.
• Bohr Model
• Lewis Dot Structure
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
Bohr Model
• The Bohr Model shows
all of the particles in the
atom.
• In the nucleus (center)
is circles. Each circle
represents a single
neutron or proton.
Protons should have a
plus written on them.
Neutrons should be
blank or have a 0.
• In a circle around the
nucleus are the
electrons. Electrons
should have a minus
sign.
-
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
+
+
-
Electrons have special rules….
• You can’t just shove all of the electrons into the
first orbit of an electron.
• Electrons live in something called shells or
energy levels.
• Only so many can be in any certain shell.
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
Nucleus
1st shell
2nd shell
3rd shell
COPY PICTURE
Adapted from http://www.sciencespot.net/Media/atomsfam.pdf
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
Electrons have special rules….
• You can’t just shove all of the electrons into the
first orbit of an electron.
• Electrons live in something called shells or
energy levels.
• Only so many can be in any certain shell.
• The electrons in the outer most shell of any
element are called valance electrons.
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
So let’s try it….
• How to draw a Lithium atom
• First, look at the Periodic Table
• Second, determine the number of
protons (Look @ the atomic number)
• Then determine the number of
neutrons (Atomic mass – atomic
number)
• Then determine the number of
electrons (Look @ the atomic number)
3
Li
Lithium
7
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
So let’s try it….
Protons = 3
3
-
Li
+
+
+
Lithium
-
7
Electrons = 3
2 in the 1st shell, 1 in the 2nd shell
Neutrons = 4
(7-3=4)
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
Lewis Dot Structure
• The Lewis Dot
Structure is a bit
different from the
Bohr model.
• It only shows the
element symbol
and it’s outer most
electron shell.
-
-
-
+
+ + +
-
-
+ + +
+
-
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
-
•
• O ••
••
-
How to…
1. Write the
symbol.
2. Start on the
right hand side,
working your
way clockwise
around the
symbol.
3. Try Lithium
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
Your activity…
• Using the beans (Lentils are electrons, Lima
Beans are protons, and kidney beans are
neutrons), create a Bohr model , and then a
Lewis dot structure model of each of the first 18
elements. After you have created each model,
draw each model on your chart.
• Hint to make a chart, use a burrito fold, then
fold the top down by 1 ½ inches. Unfold, you
now have 3 columns. Label the columns:
element, Bohr model, Lewis Dot.
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net
Periodic Table Basics
• Atomic Mass – tells you the number of protons
and electrons an element has.
Created by G.Baker
www.thesciencequeen.net