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Organic Chemistry
William H. Brown
Christopher S. Foote
Brent L. Iverson
Organic Chemistry
• The study of the compounds of carbon
• Over 10 million compounds have been
- about 1000 new ones are identified each day!
• C is a small atom
- forms single, double, and triple bonds
- intermediate in electronegativity (2.5)
- forms strong bonds with C, H, O, N, and metals
Schematic View of an Atom
• a small dense nucleus,
diameter 10-14 - 10-15 m,
which contains
positively charged
protons and most of
the mass of the atom
• an extra-nuclear space,
diameter 10-10 m, which
contains negatively
charged electrons
Electron Configuration of Atoms
• The pairing of electron spins
Electron Configuration of Atoms
• Table 1.3 The Ground-State Electron Configuration of
Elements 1-18
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent
• Although all covalent bonds involve sharing of electrons, they differ
widely in the degree of sharing
• We divide covalent bonds into
- nonpolar covalent bonds
- polar covalent bonds
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
• Molecules containing atoms of Group 3A elements, particularly
boron and aluminum
:C l:
: :
: :
6 electrons in the
valence shells of boron
and aluminum
:C l
Boron trifluoride
:C l:
:F :
Aluminum chloride
• contain an amino group; an sp3-hybridized nitrogen
bonded to one, two, or three carbon atoms
(a 1° amine)
C H3 N H
C H3
(a 2° amine)
C H3 N H
C H3 N C H3
C H3
(a 3° amine)
Shapes of a Set of 2p Atomic Orbitals
• Three-dimensional shapes of 2p atomic orbitals