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Chapters 1 & 2 Study Guide Biology 1. nucleus particle with a positive electrical charge 2. neutron particle with a negative electrical charge 3. proton particle with no electrical charge 4. electron dense center of an atom 5. Water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2), are examples of compounds / elements. 6. Elements / Compounds are made up of only one type of atom. 7. true / false An atom becomes an ion when its number of protons changes. 8. true / false Some ions are positively charged, and some ions have no charge. 9. true / false The formation of an ion results in a full outermost energy level. 10. true / false Ions usually form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another. 11. Shared pairs of electrons fill the innermost / outermost energy levels of bonded atoms. 12. Covalent bonds are generally very strong / weak. 13. Two atoms may form several covalent bonds to share several pairs of protons / electrons. 14. A molecule is held together by ionic / covalent bonds. ____________________ 15. a substance made of atoms of different elements bonded together in a certain ratio ____________________ 16. a particular type of atom ____________________ 17. a bond formed by the electrical force between two ions of opposite charge ____________________ 18. a bond formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons ____________________ 19. the smallest basic unit of matter ____________________ 20. two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds 21. Which property allows water to resist changes in temperature? a. high specific heat b. cohesion c. adhesion d. polarity 22. Which property causes water to form beads? a. high specific heat b. cohesion c. adhesion d. polarity 23. Which property of water helps plants to transport water from their roots to their leaves? a. high specific heat b. cohesion c. adhesion d. polarity 24. “Oil and water don’t mix” because a polar / nonpolar molecule can’t easily dissolve in a polar solvent. 25. In the pH table below, add labels to show which side of the table shows pHs that are more acidic, and which side shows pHs that are more basic. Then add a label to show which pH is neutral. 26. true / false Carbon atoms form the building blocks of most living things. 27. true / false Carbon’s outer energy level is full. 28. true / false Carbon atoms can form covalent bonds with up to four other atoms. 29. true / false The three basic structures of carbon-based molecules are straight chain, bent chain, and ring. Complete the table with the functions and examples provided for each type of carbon-based molecule. Functions Examples Provide energy meat fat oils Building blocks of proteins sugar beans DNA Map for making proteins RNA starches nuts Store energy Molecule Type Functions Examples Carbohydrate 30. 31. Lipid 32. 33. Protein 34. 35. Nucleic acid 36. 37. 38. The prefix mono- means “one,” and the prefix poly- means “many.” Which contains more molecules, a monomer or a polymer? _____________________ Choose the best answer to the question. 39. Activation energy is the energy required to a. complete a chemical reaction. b. start a chemical reaction. c. produce a catalyst. d. produce the reactants. 40. Which of the following can reduce the amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to take place? a. reactant b. product c. catalyst d. hydrogen bond 41. What happens to the speed of a chemical reaction when a catalyst is present? a. It speeds up. b. It slows down. c. It stays the same. d. It becomes erratic. 42. A catalyst can increase / decrease the amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction. 43. Substrates are to catalysts / enzymes as keys are to locks. 44. Enzymes / substrates are catalysts for chemical reactions in living things. 45. An organism is a. a type of species. b. an environment in the biosphere. c. any individual living thing. d. the basic unit of life. 46. The scientific study of all forms of life is called a. geology. b. chemistry. c. physics. d. biology. 47. Circle the conditions that are regulated by homeostasis. temperature outside environment acidity thoughts blood sugar Circle the dependent variable in each sentence. Draw a box around the independent variable. 48. A scientist is testing the effects of medication on the blood pressure of patients. 49. A scientist wants to find out how cellular respiration is affected by temperature. 50. A scientist is measuring the effect of precipitation on seed germination.