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Chapters 1 & 2 Study Guide
1. nucleus
particle with a positive electrical charge
2. neutron
particle with a negative electrical charge
3. proton
particle with no electrical charge
4. electron
dense center of an atom
5. Water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2), are examples of
compounds / elements.
6. Elements / Compounds are made up of only one type of atom.
7. true / false An atom becomes an ion when its number of protons changes.
8. true / false Some ions are positively charged, and some ions have no charge.
9. true / false The formation of an ion results in a full outermost energy level.
10. true / false Ions usually form when electrons are transferred from one
atom to another.
11. Shared pairs of electrons fill the innermost / outermost energy levels of
bonded atoms.
12. Covalent bonds are generally very strong / weak.
13. Two atoms may form several covalent bonds to share several pairs of
protons / electrons.
14. A molecule is held together by ionic / covalent bonds.
____________________ 15. a substance made of atoms of different elements bonded together
in a certain ratio
____________________ 16.
a particular type of atom
____________________ 17. a bond formed by the electrical force between two ions of opposite
____________________ 18.
a bond formed when two atoms share a pair
of electrons
____________________ 19.
the smallest basic unit of matter
____________________ 20.
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
21. Which property allows water to resist changes in temperature?
a. high specific heat
b. cohesion
c. adhesion
d. polarity
22. Which property causes water to form beads?
a. high specific heat
b. cohesion
c. adhesion
d. polarity
23. Which property of water helps plants to transport water from their roots to their leaves?
a. high specific heat
b. cohesion
c. adhesion
d. polarity
24. “Oil and water don’t mix” because a polar / nonpolar molecule can’t easily dissolve in a
polar solvent.
25. In the pH table below, add labels to show which side of the table shows pHs that are more
acidic, and which side shows pHs that are more basic. Then add a label to show which pH is
26. true / false Carbon atoms form the building blocks of most living things.
27. true / false Carbon’s outer energy level is full.
28. true / false Carbon atoms can form covalent bonds with up to four other atoms.
29. true / false The three basic structures of carbon-based molecules are straight chain, bent
chain, and ring.
Complete the table with the functions and examples provided for each type of
carbon-based molecule.
Provide energy
Building blocks of proteins
Map for making proteins
Store energy
Molecule Type
Nucleic acid
38. The prefix mono- means “one,” and the prefix poly- means “many.”
Which contains more molecules, a monomer or a polymer? _____________________
Choose the best answer to the question.
39. Activation energy is the energy required to
a. complete a chemical reaction.
b. start a chemical reaction.
c. produce a catalyst.
d. produce the reactants.
40. Which of the following can reduce the amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to
take place?
a. reactant
b. product
c. catalyst
d. hydrogen bond
41. What happens to the speed of a chemical reaction when a catalyst is present?
a. It speeds up.
b. It slows down.
c. It stays the same.
d. It becomes erratic.
42. A catalyst can increase / decrease the amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction.
43. Substrates are to catalysts / enzymes as keys are to locks.
44. Enzymes / substrates are catalysts for chemical reactions in living things.
45. An organism is
a. a type of species.
b. an environment in the biosphere.
c. any individual living thing.
d. the basic unit of life.
46. The scientific study of all forms of life is called
a. geology.
b. chemistry.
c. physics.
d. biology.
47. Circle the conditions that are regulated by homeostasis.
outside environment
blood sugar
Circle the dependent variable in each sentence. Draw a box around the independent
48. A scientist is testing the effects of medication on the blood pressure of patients.
49. A scientist wants to find out how cellular respiration is affected by temperature.
50. A scientist is measuring the effect of precipitation on seed germination.