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National ESPON Conference
25 November 2010 in Bucharest
ESPON Projects
in support of
Policy Formulation
Structure of Presentation
ESPON Programme and Projects
New evidence for policy developement of Smart,
Sustainable and Inclusive Territories
– Europe navigating in a challenging, changing
– Polycentric Europe: Smart connected places
– Diverse Europe: A cohesion challenge
– Sustainable Europe
Concluding advice for policy formulation
The ESPON 2013 Programme
Role in Structural Funds 2007-2013:
– Support policy development with evidence on European
territorial structures, trends, perspectives and policy
– Provide comparable information on territorial dynamics
that can reveal territorial capital and potentials
Budget 2007-13: 47 mill Euro
Programme Priorities:
– Applied Research defined by policy makers
– Targeted Analyses with stakeholders
– Scientific Platform with Tools
– Capitalisation
Themes of Applied Research
Cities and Urban agglomerations
Development Opportunities in types of Rural Areas
Demography and Migratory Flows
Effects of Rising Energy Prices
Territorial Impact Assessment of Policies
Climate Change and Territorial Effects
European land use
Territorial cooperation
Secondary growth poles
Specific types of territories
Innovation and knowledge economy
Continental structures and flows
Territorial and Regional sensitivity of EU Directives
Services of General Interest
European Seas in Territorial Development
Themes of Targeted Analyses
Agglomeration Economies
The Development of the Islands
Cross-Border Polycentric Metropolitan Regions
Convergence Regions’ Economies
Spatial Scenarios in Local-Regional Territories
Territorial Diversity
Potential of Rural Regions
Transnational Support Method for SF programmes
ESPON and TIA in practice
Cross-border Spatial Development
Regional Integrated Strategies
Polycentric Metropolisation in Central Europe
Territorial Performance Monitoring
Development conditions for Paris, Berlin, Warsaw
Migration and gender balance in rural regions
Smart Institutions for Territorial Development
Airports as Drivers
R&D Monitoring in regions
Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Territories
Navigating Europe in a challenging, changing World
Challenge from global diversity in wealth will change and
East-West differences within Europe remain significant
Economic crisis has hit European countries and regions
Regions with dependency of a particular sector or company
suffered more while regions reliant on export-oriented
industries and financial services seems less severely
Major decision-making centres of many multi-national
companies located are London and Paris
Capital cities and larger urban areas also host such
companies as do some rural areas, mainly in the core of
Connecting places of Europe is important as accessibility
and growth are correlated
Cooperation of territories must increase creating larger
markets, critical mass and better territorial balance
Integration in World City Network, 2008
European nodes in world economy
Location of international headquarters
shows decision making power of
Highest number of subsidiaries are
controlled from London and Paris
As well in Geneva, Basel, Trieste,
Arnhem, Lausanne, Clermont-Ferrand,
Munich, Frankfurt, Edinburgh or
Some quite small cities are important
Companies in Ireland, Wales, Northern
England, Portugal and eastern Europe
are mainly controlled by headquarters
in other countries.
Divisions in wealth in Europe’s neighbourhood
EU & neighbourhood
Within Europe
Polycentric Europe: Smart connected places
A more Polycentric Europe is feasible, also at European
scale promoting metropolitan urban regions/cooperation
Next Innovation cycle in Nano-, Bio-, Info-Tech and
Cognitive sciences will benefit mainly Capitals and
University cities and specialised urban regions
Connections to global innovation networks important
Smart connected places are not only urban as innovative
rural regions profiting from global connectivity
Places reachable for one day return business trips have an
economic advantage
Many urban centres along borders can benefit from larger
functional areas
Territorial impact assessment ex ante is important for
finding synergies and unleashing territorial potentials
City network for one-day business trips, 2009
Networking & physical meetings
are important
Places that can be reached for
day-return business trips have
an economic advantage
Air connections dominant for
international links
High speed rail mainly relevant
for domestic links (cross-border
Clear European core-periphery
Rural areas and their urban inter linkage, 1995-2004
Disparities decrease
between major urban centres
and their rural hinterland in
Portugal, Germany, Belgium
and Austria
Disparities increase mainly
in the Eastern European
countries, the UK and Nordic
Structural types of rural areas, 2006
Agrarian Europe dominant in
the East and present on the
Iberian Peninsular
Consumption countryside is
Diverse Europe: A Cohesion Challenge
Demographic change and immigration will foster imbalances
between poorer and richer areas and highlight the question of
need for immigration
Scenarios 2050 show shrinking labour force in lots of regions,
mainly to the deficit of regions in Eastern Europe
Specific types of regions are diverse and the smaller and remote
face problems of economies of scale due to limited accessibility
For remote and sparsely populated regions links to nearest urban
hub is often more important than European access
Potentially rising energy prices will particular impact peripheral
regions, places with extensive commuting patterns, energy
intensive industries and housing stock, and may promote
Economic success of convergence regions is largely dependent of
governance with human resources capable of delivering results
Change in working age population, 2000-2007
Areas with the highest
decreases in Bulgaria and
East Germany
Areas with the strongest
increase in Spain, Ireland,
Iceland, some regions in
western France, and single
regions in Portugal, Poland,
Switzerland, the Benelux
countries, Czech Republic,
Slovakia, Scotland and
Expected territorial migration towards 2050
Most regions gain population due to
In 24% of the regions the 2050
population would be higher by 30%
or more compared to a nonmigration scenario.
EU15 regions mainly winners with
some exceptions
Most profound gains in Italy north of
Naples, some south-eastern regions
of Spain, southern France, and the
east and west England.
Emigration regions in the east,
especially in Romania and Poland.
Intra-Europe migration flows, 2006/2007
Almost 2 million people a
year move from one ESPON
country to another
Main axis of migration:
More geographically spread
migration patterns:
Netherlands, Latvia, France,
UK and Sweden
Sustainable Europe
EU currently depends on the ecological reserves of other parts
of the world
Regional effects of climate change range from considerable
challenges to new development potentials
Extreme weather events may have damaging effects on
infrastructures and hamper economic development
70% of the largest European cities are located in areas below
10 metres above sea level underlining the importance of
adaptation and mitigation for Europe’s economy
Many regions perceived as peripheral have high potential to
tap energy from wind and sun
Innovative profiling of local/regional assets of attraction
needs to be promoted
Investment in a more resource efficient, greener economy is
likely to be led by metropolitan regions, particularly in
Western Europe and to disseminate from there
Ecological footprint, 2006
The EU has 7.7% of the
world’s population.
EU accounts for 16% of the
world’s ecological footprint.
In effect, the EU currently
depends on the ecological
reserves of other parts of the
Climate change in Europe, 1961-2100
Diverse combinations of
impacts in different parts of
For detailed explanation on
the impact of the different
regions, please consult page
92 of the ESPON Synthesis
Solar and Wind Power potential, 2005
Concluding advice for Policy Formulation
Advice for policy formulation
Territorial diversity of Europe is an important asset for
competitiveness, cohesion and economic recovery
Different regions have different possibilities to deliver smart,
sustainable and inclusive growth and contribute to economic
Competitiveness is vitally important, but energy security, climate
change adaptation and mitigation, ecological footprint reduction,
regional resilience and capacity to bounce back are increasingly
Modern place based policy formulation requires considering the
larger territorial scale
Territorial strategies and policies needs to be synergetic including
all relevant sector policies
Urban areas are home to main drivers of economic growth and
innovation, the place of the sharpest social divides and critical for
reducing the ecological footprint
Rural territories can create development
ESPON evidence is relevant at all policy levels – Use it.
More information
Thank you for your attention!
All results from ESPON applied research and targeted analyses
used for the report on evidence related to
Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Territories
can be found and downloaded from