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Workshop 4: Environmental and Cultural Assets Rapporteur: Professor Mark Shucksmith ESPON Seminar, Espoo, 14-15 November 2006 Introduction • • • • Fisheries, environment, culture and tourism are assets which give places potential to achieve objectives of competitiveness, cohesion and sustainability (part of an array of tangible and intangible assets). Tension between conservation and exploitation: one challenge is to develop a balanced strategy – how can ESPON help provide the evidence to assist this? How to combine tangible and intangible assets? How to build the capacity of places to manage these? Tangible & Intangible Assets EU FP5 Dynamics of Rural Areas project shows how tangible and intangible assets can work together. Tangible resources now less important than intangibles. Key to economic performance were: Institutional and governance structures Social capital Entrepreneurial spirit (presence of ‘creative class’?) Education and skills Attractive environment Cultural resources Fisheries (2.1.5) • • • • • • • • Overexploitation of resource -> fleet reductions. Growth in aquaculture, but environmental impacts. NUTS3 unfit for studying spatial impacts -> LAU. Spatial planning systems must cover both terrestrial and marine part of the coastal zone. Lack of coordination between policies & programmes. Effectiveness of FIFG programmes depends heavily on absorptive capacity of regions (governance and institutional capacity; resources; alternatives) Combine best elements of the spatial planning system with best elements of voluntary partnership. ESPON 2013: ‘area studies’ to unravel causality. Cultural Assets (1.3.3) • • • Data difficulties, inconsistent databases –> ESPON 2013. Base indicators: heritage assets, landscapes, museums (commodities); “creative class” (productive); cultural diversity, education level (capacity). Three classifications developed: Market: comparing visitor numbers with cultural assets; Functional specialisations – how well do regions pursue • conservation; production; and valorisation of assets? Cross Thematic Analysis – with other ESPON measures. Circular relation between culture and economic development suggests some strategies shown in diagram.. Low P, high S High P, high S Under-exploitation of heritage POTENTIAL DEMAND FOR HERITAGE RESOURCES Increase demand (higher gear in cultural marketing) “Balance” Capacity building: increase “new” cultural assets and use them in regional promotion strategies Low P, low S Cultural capacity deficit Potential for valorisation of heritage Reduce pressure levels (e.g. extreme protection) SUPPLY OF HERITAGE RESOURCES Create “alternative” cultural products to satisfy existing demand High P, low S Heritage at risk (excess demand pressure) Impact of Environmental Policies (2.4.1) • • • • • Territorial trends: urban growth unevenly related to population Δ ; loss of natural & semi-natural areas not correlated with GDP Δ. Can urban growth have positive environmental impact? TIA methodology: environmental policy -> environment and territorial trends and so -> territorial objectives (eg. Natura 2000 designation reduces mining and quarrying especially in peripheral areas.) Studied on different spatial levels: local, regional, national, transnational, and European level. Method mainly mapping of two superimposed variables rather than multivariate analysis. Causality? Tourism pilot project (1.4.5) • • Trends: more, shorter trips; urban tourism; cheap flights. But data only on international travel and includes business trips. Future proposed work under ESPON 2013: Travels and flows Who is travelling where, for how long, and why? What mode? Economic effects and employment Demand side (tourist expenditures and consumption) Supply side (accommodation, transportation, facilities, attractions) Job creation and economic development Environmental and social effects Harmonise data to increase comparability: Eurostat data on bed • spaces is not only useless but dangerous. Address future challenges for tourist regions. Some case studies Implications of Stern Report on Climate Change? Discussion • How does management (and planning) of environmental and • • • • cultural assets affect spatial development? Natural Heritage is viewed as an asset for attracting economic activities: does this require limitations on development? Tension between enabling and regulatory roles of spatial planning. Are there virtuous circles: eg. does good scenery and culture attract ‘creative class’ who generate growth? How can this be promoted? For ESPON 2013 a pilot study is advised focusing on the use of management and planning tools to see how intervention might protect, build and valorise these assets. Common issue of data deficiencies suggest need both for data harmonisation and for complementary approaches.