Download The Skeletal System – Day 2

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Transcript
The Skeletal
System –
Orgainization
Day 2
Axial Skeleton
• Consists of the 80 bones in the head and
trunk of the human body
• The purpose of the axial skeleton (among
other things) is to protect the body's
most vital organs
Bones of the Axial Skeleton
•
•
•
•
Cranial Bones (22)
Facial Bones (14)
Ossicles – Inner Ear (6)
Hyoid Bone - U-shape bone located in the
neck. It anchors the tongue and is
associated with swallowing (1)
• Vertebral Column – Includes Sacrum and
Sternum(26)
• Thoracic Cage – Includes Ribs (25)
Appendicular Skeleton
• Consists of 126 bones in the human body
which make motion possible and protects
the organs of digestion, excretion, and
reproduction
• The word appendicular means referring to
an appendage or anything attached to a
major part of the body, such as the upper
and lower extremities
Bones of the Appendicular
Skeleton
• Shoulder girdle (Clavicle, Scapula)
• Arm (Humerus, Ulna, Radius)
• Hand (Metacarpals, Phalanges)
• Pelvic girdle
• Leg (Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Patella)
• Foot (Tarsals, Metatarsals, Phalanges)
• THE AXIAL AND APPENDICULAR SKELETON
TOGETHER MAKE UP THE COMPLETE SKELETON
Cartilage/Meniscus
• A strong, flexible material that supports
and provides a smooth surface that makes
movement at a joint smooth
• 3 Functions:
• Stability
• Lubrication & Nutrition
• Shock absorption
Ligaments
• Strong bands or cords of tissue that
connect the BONE TO BONE at a joint
• Commonly injured ligaments are the
Patellar Ligaments:
•
•
•
•
ACL – Anterior Cruciate Ligament
LCL – Lateral Cruciate Ligament
PCL – Posterior Cruciate Ligament
MCL – Medial Cruciate Ligament
Anterior View of Right Knee
Tendons
• Bands of fiber that
connect MUSCLE TO
BONES
• Tendons and muscles
work together to exert a
pulling force
• Commonly Injured
Tendon is the Achilles
Tendon which connects
the heel bone to the
Gastrocnemius and
Soleus (Calf muscles)
Types of Bones
•
•
•
•
Long
Short
Flat
Irregular
Types of Joints
• 3 main types:
• Immovable i.e. Cranium
• Slightly Movable i.e. Vertebral Joint, Tibiofibular
Joint
• Freely Movable (Synovial) i.e. All other joints in
the body
• The Synovial Joint contains synovial fluid which
allows the joint to move freely and decreases
friction
• Synovial Joints are classified into 3 different
sections: Hinge, Condyloid, Ball and Socket
Types of Joints Cont’d
• Hinge – Allows movement in One plane of
motion ONLY i.e. Elbow, Knee
• Condyloid – Allows movement in Two
planes of motion i.e. Wrist, Ankle
• Ball and Socket – Allows movement in
Three directions and a great range of
motion i.e. Shoulder, Hip
• Saddle – found in the thumb
Synovial Joints - Worksheets
• Worksheets:
• “Types of Synovial
Joints”
• “The Synovial Joint”
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