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Activity solutions
7.1 Media analysis
Why do you think this survey was conducted?
To learn more about the habits of women in relation to their eating habits.
What were some of the food intake habits being undertaken by the women in the
1 in 3 had skipped breakfast at least once during the week.
60% had eaten takeaway at least once during the week
23% had tried a fad diet (meal replacements and detox diets most popular)
Less than 6% had seen a dietician for meal plan or tailored diet.
The health condition of concern indicated in this article is overweight and obesity.
What recommendations have been made to address the condition of overweight
and obesity for this particular population group based on the results of the survey?
Recommendations include making small changes every week such as writing down
your weight loss goals and setting realistic targets.
Explain how the data obtained from this survey might have been used by the
Data obtained could be used to guide future revisions of the National Health Goals and
Targets by the NHMRC; provide data on food and nutrient intake for comparison with
dietary guidelines; provide benchmark data against which future surveys can be
compared to assess changes over time; or ensure that nutrition education campaigns are
Cambridge University Press
© Goodacre, Collins, Slattery 2014
What other health conditions could possibly result from the food intake indicated
in this survey?
Other health conditions could include: heart disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers
such as bowel cancer.
Why is it essential for government and non-government organisations conduct
regular nutrition surveys?
It is essential to guide policies and review effectiveness of current nutritional
campaigns. It also provides reliable information that can be used to develop future
nutrition campaigns and act as benchmarks for future comparisons.
In pairs, determine a possible national health goal that the government may create
to help address this condition, based on the results from the survey.
Students answers will vary.
7.2 Australian Dietary Guidelines
Explain how the government is promoting healthy eating through the development
of the Australian Dietary Guidelines?
The government is promoting healthy eating by providing recommendations for healthy
eating that are realistic, practical and based on scientific evidence. The guidelines
provide guidance on foods, food groups and dietary patterns that protect against chronic
disease and provide the nutrients required for optimal health and wellbeing.
How can the guidelines be used by different groups within the community?
The guidelines have been developed for different population groups including adults,
older adults and children. The guidelines are relevant for all population groups and
where the suggested dietary advice may be different, the group is clearly identified in
the guideline. For example, Guideline 1 directly has information for children and
adolescents and also older people.
Cambridge University Press
© Goodacre, Collins, Slattery 2014
The practical approach of the guidelines recommendations also makes it easier to apply
so different groups can ensure their needs are met while still following the guidelines.
Identify the dietary-related diseases that are being targeted by the guidelines. Why
do you think this is the case?
Dietary diseases include obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, liver damage,
osteoporosis and some cancers such as bowel.
This is to ensure we are addressing our National Health Priority Areas and improve the
health status of Australians.
Research the benefits of breastfeeding and create a summary table of the benefits
in relation to the mother, the infant and the community.
• Protective against obesity,
• Perfect nutritional
• Cheaper to breastfeed
hypertension and some
composition for babies
chronic disease in later life • Contains antibodies that
• Creates a bond between
mother and baby
• Is convenient
can protect against
infectious diseases
• Creates a bond between
mother and baby
• Is hygienic
compared to cost of
• Breastfeeding is a
protective factor for a
number of diseases, which
would reduce burden of
healthcare cost to
Look back to the main findings of the National Children’s Nutritional and Physical
Activity Survey. Choose two of the Guidelines form the Australian Dietary
Guidelines and identify how they can be used to address some of the concerns
found in the results of the survey.
Guideline 2 – the survey found that girls and boys aged 14-16 were most at risk for not
meeting dietary calcium. Guideline 2 encourages people to consume a wide variety of
nutritious foods for the five food groups, which would aid to ensure required dietary
Cambridge University Press
© Goodacre, Collins, Slattery 2014
calcium would be consumed from a range of different good food sources.
Guideline 3 – The survey found that for all ages the consumption of sodium exceeded
the recommended upper level of intake. Guideline 3 focuses on limiting the intake of
foods and drinks containing added salt, to reduce the intake of sodium. By reading food
labels to choose lower sodium options and not adding salt to foods when cooking or at
the table, sodium consumption levels should decrease, helping to address this survey
7.3 Australian Guide to Healthy Eating
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating is based on the principles of the Australian
Dietary Guidelines. Describe two ways in which the Australian Guide to Healthy
Eating reflects any two guidelines.
Student answers will vary depending on the guidelines they choose. The following is a
sample answer:
The AGHE reflects Guidelines 2 and 3 as it includes visual representation of foods that
are identified in the guideline such as yoghurt, fruit, grain food groups and meat. The
AGHE also illustrates the information provided in Guideline 3 by showing foods to only
use in small amounts including those referred to in the guideline such as cakes, butter
and sugary drinks.
Why is the AGHE used as a health promotion tool? What does it encourage
Australians to include or exclude in their diets?
The AGHE is used as it provides a visual representation of the recommendations
for healthy eating evident in the Australian Dietary Guidelines. It provides
information about the amounts and types of food to be eaten every day to get
enough nutrients essential for good health and wellbeing.
Australians are encouraged to include: vegetables and legumes/bean; fruit; grain
(cereal) foods; lean meat and poultry, fish, eggs, nuts and seeds; milk, yoghurt,
cheese and/or alternatives and water.
Cambridge University Press
© Goodacre, Collins, Slattery 2014
Australians are shown foods to exclude in their diet or foods to be consumed in
small amounts and sometimes in small amounts. These foods consist of a range of
foods and drinks that are high in kilojoules, saturated fat, added sugars and/or salt
or alcohol.
Use the information to complete the table.
& legumes
yoghurt &
Lean meat,
& legumes
Discretionary choices
Paul’s intake
(Recommended serves taken from Table 7.8.)
Compare the effectiveness of the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the Australian
Guide to Healthy Eating as tools to promote healthy eating for someone like Paul.
Sample response might be:
The Australian Dietary Guidelines provides general advice to the population about
healthy food choices whereas the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating provides a visual
recommendation of the recommendations for healthy eating. The guidelines would
provide Paul excellent information for which to reference his diet against and do
provide examples of each food group to assist him in planning and changing his
everyday eating. The AGHE would be effective for Paul as it provide him with
examples of a serve and he can easily see the proportion each food group should be in
his daily food consumption.
Cambridge University Press
© Goodacre, Collins, Slattery 2014
Evaluate Paul’s food intake according to the AGHE, taking into account the food
groups that are under and over consumed and three major nutrients that may be
under and/or over consumed.
Paul is consuming far too many discretionary choices and does not include enough
variety of nutritious foods in his everyday diet. He must significantly increase his
consumption of vegetables and legumes and water. He needs to also make some small
adjustments to ensure he is consuming the recommend serves of fruit, increasing from
one serve to two, lean meats, egg, nuts/seeds and legumes as well as grain foods. Paul is
over-consuming energy-dense foods as seen by his discretionary choices, which could
result in obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease. He is also over-consuming saturated
fat, which could lead to cardiovascular disease. Fruit and vegetables are good food
sources of fibre. Paul needs to increase these food group as he is under-consuming
sources of carbohydrate that provided fibre, which is a protective factor for bowel
cancer and obesity. Increasing his fibre intake will also help Paul to fill fuller for longer
reducing the need for snacks during the day and, therefore, decreasing his discretionary
item consumption.
7.4 Healthy Living Pyramid
Give examples of when and where you have come in contact with this model.
The Healthy Living Pyramid may be found on display in:
Doctors’ surgeries
Community health centres
Child and infant health centres
Compare your own diet to the pyramid and note any differences.
Student answers will vary but some suggested differences between an average
Australian’s diet and recommendations of the pyramid could include:
A tendency to eat too much salt
Cambridge University Press
© Goodacre, Collins, Slattery 2014
Recommend ‘eat most’ foods are generally eaten in lower quantities than the ‘eat
moderately’ foods
It is common for Australians to not drink enough water
Often more foods than recommended will be eaten than foods in the other areas,
causing an imbalance in diet
Suggest changes you could make to your food intake to correspond with the
recommendations of this food model.
Possible changes to diet to correspond with recommendations of the food model may
Drink more water
Eat less fats
Eat more fruits, vegetables and wholegrains
Consume less salt
Exercise more regularly
7.5 Healthy foods
Develop some criteria you would like to see used for a food to be classified as
Student answers will vary based on opinion. Some examples might include:
Low in fat (especially saturated and trans fats)
High in fibre
Low GI
Low in sugar
Low in salt
Design your own logo to represent this new class of healthy foods.
Logo design will vary from student to student.
Cambridge University Press
© Goodacre, Collins, Slattery 2014