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CHAPTER 12: NUTRITIONAL GUIDELINES Answers to Review Questions ANSWERS TO CASE STUDY 1. Betsy is receiving calcium in excess. The two nutrients most likely deficient in her diet are vitamin C and iron. 2. Vitamin C and vitamin A are two nutrients probably deficient in Jason’s diet. 3. Calcium is probably lacking in Jeremy’s diet due to his refusal of dairy products. 4. Tommy’s dietary changes should include the following: a. Introduce high-protein foods of mild taste, such as chicken, turkey, eggs, and beans. They can be combined with carbohydrates and served as a bean burrito, grilled cheese sandwich, or cheese pizza. b. Cut high-protein and high-fat foods into small pieces that are easy to chew. c. Use these foods mixed with pasta, bread, or vegetables. d. Try various cheeses for acceptance but remember that cheese cannot be used as a total substitute for meats because it lacks iron. 5. Mary’s dietary changes should include the following: a. Decrease her total juice intake and serve juices, such as orange juice, that are fortified with calcium. b. Continue to offer small servings of milk and/or dairy products, even if they are refused; Mary’s tastes may soon change. c. Use dried skim milk in the preparation of foods such as meat loaf, casseroles, and soups. Also, try offering yogurt and fresh fruit, frozen yogurt, peanut butter, salmon and tuna, cooked dried beans, broccoli, tofu, collard greens, and puddings for more calcium. ANSWERS TO CHAPTER REVIEW A. By Yourself 2. Matching exercise 1. b 2. c 3. c; b (if meat is included in the sauce); d (if tomato sauce is included) 4. a (if cheese is added); b, c, d (if vegetables are included) 5. a, c 6. b, c 7. d*, f, g 8. a*, g 9. c* 10. g* *These foods provide an opportunity for discussion about whether they should be considered as discretionary calories. Students should make this decision by first calculating the nutrient density (for various nutrient strengths). B. As a Group 1. Energy is derived from calories; energy in calories is released during metabolism. Proteins (4 cal/g), carbohydrates (4 cal/g), and fats (9 cal/g) are the only nutrients that yield calories. 2. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide easy-to-follow recommendations for healthy eating and activity behaviors. Healthy weight maintenance is a fundamental theme— balancing nutrient intake with physical activity. Individuals are strongly encouraged to increase their consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products. Following recommended limits for sodium, potassium, fats (saturated, unsaturated, cholesterol), and sugars is also urged to achieve important health benefits (e.g., lower risk of high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes). 3. Dietary reference intakes (DRIs) are provided in a detailed table for specific nutrients and by age groups (See Table 12–2). This information can be used to evaluate an individual’s intake of specific nutrients, such as iron or calcium, with values known to support health. The DRIs are also used to determine the nutrient values provided on food labels. Individuals can use this information to determine if the food item is nutrient- or calorie-dense and if it will help to meet their nutrient needs. 4. The positive aspects of the Food Guide Pyramid include: detailed information about food groups and food choices within groups; and, recommendations that are more individualized (not the one-size-fits-all approach). It is designed to help individuals make better food choices, include a wider variety of foods (especially fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, low-fat products), and balance food intake with physical activity. The interactive website (MyPyramid Tracker, MyPyramid Plan) offers consumers excellent tools for achieving their goals, including extensive food lists (by nutrient strength), meal-planning ideas, physical activities, and food safety warnings. The main limitations of the Food Guide Pyramid may be the assumption that consumers can determine the percentage of each food group (width of each food group band) relative to their total dietary intake and appropriate serving sizes. Also, consumers must have computer access in order to use the interactive tools. 5. The U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has established definitions for these and other terms and regulates their use by manufacturers on food labels, For example: low fat is defined as 3 g or less fat/serving; fat-free is 0.5g or less fat/serving; and, reduced calories is at least 25% fewer calories/serving than the reference (comparable) food.