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Food and Nutrition
Dr. Liz Kirk
Nutritional Sciences Program
In a nutshell!
Navigating Food
• Food interactions
– How you eat
– How do you relate with food?
• Food and nourishment
– Why you eat
– Overview of nutrients
• Dietary Recommendations
– What you should eat
– How you can choose to eat
Our Relationship with Food
The Continuum
What is it about food that nourishes us?
• 4 kcal/g
Figure 1.5
• 9 kcal/g
• 4 kcal/g
Figure 1.7
• Inorganic nutrient, essential for survival
About 3 liters a day
More if you’re active
Table 1.3
Table 1.4
How do I know what to eat?
Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010
• Dietary recommendations for health
promotion and chronic disease
• Based on Dietary Guidelines Advisory
Committee report, public comments
• For policymakers, health professionals
MyPlate can be used to plan a healthful diet.
Based on the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the
Dietary Reference Intakes
2010 - 4 Focus Areas
• Balance Calories to Manage Weight
– Weight management and obesity prevention
– Physical activity
• Foods and Food Components to Reduce
– Sodium
– Saturated and trans fatty acids
– Cholesterol
– Solid fats, added sugars, refined grains
• Foods and Nutrients to Increase
– Fruits vegetables
– Whole grains
– Low and non-fat dairy
– Lean meats, seafood (low in solid fats)
– Calcium, potassium, fiber, vitamin D
• Building Healthy Eating Patterns
– Eat throughout the day
Balance Calories to Manage Weight
• Pay attention to portion sizes
• Consider replacing some screentime with
• Aim for 30-60 minutes physically demanding
activity per day
Foods and Food Components to Reduce
 Reduce daily sodium intake
 Reduce intake of solid fats
 Limit the consumption of foods that contain refined grains
 especially refined grain foods that contain solid fats, added sugars,
and sodium.
2010 - Foods and Nutrients to Increase
 Increase vegetable and fruit intake.
 Eat a variety of vegetables
 Consume at least half of all grains as whole grains.
 Increase intake of fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products
 Choose a variety of protein foods
 include seafood, lean meat and poultry, eggs, beans and peas, soy
products, and unsalted nuts and seeds.
Reality Check
USDA Dietary Guidelines 2010 (p 46)
How can you make better choices?
(or at least more informed choices)
• Enough energy
• Enough nutrients
• Enough fiber and fluids
• To support health and
• Pay attention to what you’re eating
• Be aware of portion sizes
• Moderate doesn’t necessarily mean eliminate
• Not overconsuming any one food
• Eat foods each of the major food groups
– Grains
– Vegetables
– Proteins
• (meats, beans, nuts, seeds)
– Fruits
– Dairy
• Not eating the “same old thing”
• Choose a number of different foods within
any given food group
• Ensures the diet contains sufficient nutrients
• Inclusion of fruits and vegetables to provide
– Bioactive compounds in plant foods that improve
our health (reduce risk of chronic disease)
Moving Toward the Middle
Enjoy food
Eat a wide variety of foods
Eat throughout the day
Be physically active