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Meal Planning and Management
The context in which families and
individuals wish to eat determines how
meals can be managed for the greatest
satisfaction. No single pattern can be
expected to be the best for all people.
Instead, the person or group needs to
identify the philosophy, values, and goals
that provide an appropriate foundation for
effective meal management.
Developing a philosophy
What can mealtime contribute to family
How important is cost control in the food
Can family meals enhance social skills of
How can family meals promote the health of
various family members?
Can various family members develop creativity
by helping in meal preparation and service
In what other ways can family meals add to the
quality of life in a family, as a group, or as an
Something considered very desirable and
Examples might be health, the social value
of food, cultural identity, money, time,
energy, education, and creativity.
An objective worthy of considerable effort to
achieve it.
The goal of good health might be supported by
Serving fish or poultry at least four times weekly
to help reduce serum cholesterol
Controlling portion sizes by preparing smaller
amounts of food to aid in weight reduction
Preparing a rich dessert no more than once a
seek (again to help control weight)
Serving breakfast early enough for people to eat
unhurriedly before leaving for school or work
Meal management consists of:
Meal planning like food choices has
nutrition, economic, time, service,
and individual preferences.
Nutrition in Meal Planning
A key goal of menu planning is to include
foods that will provide adequate amounts
of all nutrients essential to meet the
physical needs of the individual on a daily
Dietary Reference Values
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
Average daily intake levels that are sufficient to
meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (9798%) healthy individuals in a particular life
stage and gender group
Adequate Intake (AI)
Recommended intake value based on observed
or experimentally determined approximations of
estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or
groups) of healthy people that are assumed to
be adequate; used when an RDA cannot be
DRIs Continued
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
The highest level of daily nutrient intake that is
likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects
for almost all individuals in the general
population. As intake increases above the UL,
the potential risk of adverse effects increases
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
Daily nutrient intake value that is estimated to
meet the requirement of half of the healthy
people in a life stage and gender group
Dietary Guidelines for
Key Recommendations for the
General Population
Adequate Nutrients within
Calorie Needs
Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods
and beverages within and among the
basic food groups while choosing foods
that limit the intake of saturated and trans
fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt and
Meet recommended intakes within energy
needs by adopting a balanced eating
pattern, such as the USDA Food Guide or
the Dietary Approaches to Stop
Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan.
Weight Management
To maintain body weight in a healthy
range, balance calories from foods and
beverages with calories expended.
To prevent gradual weight gain over time,
make small decreases in food and
beverage calories and increase physical
Physical Activity
Engage in regular physical activity and
reduce sedentary activities to promote
health, psychological well-being, and a
healthy body weight.
Achieve physical fitness by including
cardiovascular conditioning, stretching
exercises for flexibility, and resistance
exercises or calisthenics for muscle
strength and endurance
Food Groups to Encourage
Consume a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables while
staying within energy needs. Two cups of fruit and 2 ½ cups of
vegetables per day are recommended for a reference 2,000
calorie intake, with higher or lower amounts depending on the
calorie level.
Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day. In
particular, select from all five vegetable subgroups (dark green,
orange, legumes, starchy vegetables, and other vegetables)
several times a week
Consume 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole-grain products
per day, with the rest of the recommended grains coming from
enriched or whole-grain products. In general at least half the
grains should come from whole grains.
Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent
milk products.
Consume less than 10% of calories from
saturated fatty acids and less than 300 mg/day
of cholesterol, and keep trans fatty acid
consumption as low as possible.
Keep total fat intake between 20 and 35% of
calories, with most fats coming from sources of
polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty
acids, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils.
When selecting and preparing meat, poultry, dry
beans, and milk or milk products make choices
that are lean, low-fat, or fat-free.
Limit intake of fats and oils high in saturated
and/or trans fatty acids, and choose product low
in such fats and oils.
Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and
whole grains often.
Choose and prepare foods and beverages
with little added sugars or caloric
sweeteners, such as amount suggested by
the USDA food Guide and the DASH
Eating Plan.
Reduce the incidence of dental caries by
practicing good oral hygiene and
consuming sugar- and starch-containing
foods and beverages less frequently.
Sodium and Potassium
Consume less than 2,300 mg
(approximately 1 teaspoon of salt) of
sodium per day.
Choose and prepare food with little salt.
At the same time, consume potassium-rich
foods, such as fruits and vegetables.
Alcoholic Beverages
Those who choose to drink alcoholic beverages
should do so sensibly and in moderation-defined as
the consumption of up to one drink per day for
women and up to two drinks per day for men.
Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by
some individuals, including those who cannot restrict
their alcohol intake, women of childbearing age who
may become pregnant, pregnant and lactating
women, children and adolescents, individuals taking
medications that can interact with alcohol, and those
with specific medical conditions.
Alcoholic beverages should be avoided by
individuals engaging in activities that require
attention, skill, or coordination, such as driving or
operating machinery.
Food Safety
To avoid microbial foodborne illness:
Clean hands, food contact surfaces, and fruits and
vegetables. Meat and poultry should not be washed or
Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while
shopping, preparing, or storing foods.
Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.
Chill (refrigerate) perishable food promptly and defrost
foods properly.
Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or any products made from
unpasteurized milk, raw or partially cooked eggs or foods
containing raw eggs, raw or undercooked meat and
poultry, unpasteurized juices, and raw sprouts.
Food Guide Pyramid
For 2200 calorie diet
Bread, cereal 7 oz
Vegetables 3 cups
Fruits 2 cups
Milk 3 cups
Meat, poultry, fish, beans 6 oz
Fats, oils, nuts 6 tsp
Discretionary calories 290 calories
Fair Packaging and Labeling
All package labels must contain the
following basic requirements
Common name and form (peaches, sliced)
Net weight of contents
Ingredients list
Name and address of manufacturer
Nutrition Facts Label
Nutrition Labeling Education Act (NLEA) of
1990 was established to provide
information which consumers need to
make healthier food choices
Mandatory labeling for most foods offered
for sale and regulated by FDA will
enhance efforts targeted at risk reduction
for chronic disease
Standard Format of Nutrition
Serving size
Quantitative amount per serving of each
required nutrient
Amount of each required nutrient as a
percent of the Daily Value for a 2000 calorie
Reference Values for selected nutrients
based on 2000 and 2500 calorie diets
Caloric conversion information
Reference Serving Size
All labels must use serving
sizes defined as the amount
customarily consumed per
eating occasion. Nutrients are
given on the label based on
the serving size provided on
the label
Nutrients Required on the
Nutrition Label
Total calories
Calories from fat
Grams of total fat
Grams of saturated fat
Milligrams of cholesterol
Milligrams of sodium
Grams of total carbohydrates
Grams of dietary fiber
Grams of sugar
Grams of protein
Percent Daily Value for total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol,
sodium, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, sugars, protein,
vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and iron based on a 2000 Kcal diet
Daily Values
Are nutrient standards derived from the Daily
Reference Values (DRV) and Reference Daily
Intakes (RDI). Daily Reference Values refer to
fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrates,
fiber, sodium, and potassium. Reference
Daily Intakes cover other nutrients including
protein, vitamins, and other minerals. Daily
Values are based on a daily diet of 2000 or
2500 calories and are mandatory for 10 food
components while optional for 22 others. DVs
are not recommended intakes for individuals
because no one nutrient standard could apply
to everyone.
Calories Per Gram
The label gives the number of
calories per gram of fat,
carbohydrates, and protein which
allows consumers to calculate the
calories from each of the energy
Voluntary Labeling
Fresh produce or seafoods unpackaged or
packaged at retail. Labeling may be done
on placards, brochures, or videos.
Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
established rules for meat and poultry to
parallel as much as possible the nutrition
regulations of the NLEA
Foods offered for sale by small businesses
Food sold in restaurants or other
establishments in which food is served for
immediate consumption
Food similar to restaurant foods that are
ready to eat but are not for immediate
consumption, are primarily prepared on
site, and are not offered for sale outside of
that location
Exemptions Continued
Foods that contain insignificant amounts
of all nutrients subject to the law such
as coffee and tea
Dietary supplements except those in
conventional food form
Infant formula
Medical foods
Custom processed fish and game meat
Foods shipped in bulk form
Donated foods
FDA Allowed Health Claims
Cancer Risk
Cardiovascular Risk
Cognitive Function
Neural Tube Birth Defects
See page 559 for specifics
Descriptive Terms in Labeling
FDA has defined the terms free, low, light
or lite, reduced, less, high, good source,
and very low
See page 560 of text for definitions
USDA Menu Patterns
Adult Care Meal Pattern
Child Care Meal Pattern
Menu guidelines for school lunch
Basically provide food type and number of
servings to be provided at meals and
Cycle Menus
Creating several weekly menus in a row
set up a menu cycle.
Considerations in establishing a cycle
menu include clientele, cost, taste, holiday
meals, seasonal availability, nutrition
guidelines, appealing menu items,
balancing use of equipment, balancing
workload/schedules, cycle/day sequence,
and descriptive menus
Power Point Author
Dr. Jane Ross
The University of Vermont
Foods and Nutrition
Basic Concepts of Food