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Transcript
10th Lesson
By Christos N. Hadjichristidis
Today’s Attractions
 “ὄφελον ψυχρὸς ἦς ἢ ζεστός. Οὕτως ὅτι χλιαρὸς εἶ, καὶ οὔτε
ζεστὸς οὔτε ψυχρός, μέλλω σε ἐμέσαι ἐκ τοῦ στόματός
μου.” (I would thou wert cold or hot. So then because thou
art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee out
of my mouth ) ST. JOHN'S REVELATION - 3
 Review of the Similarities & Differences between Greek
and English Grammar. Put it all together!
 Review on Greek language basic features
 Asking what’s on the menu and ordering Greek food and
drink
 Telling the time in Greek
 Asking about public transport, finding out travel times and
checking travel details
 Watch a relevant movie in Greek
 Practise ordering Greek food & drinks at ‘Simply Greek’!
Punctuation
Greek mark
English mark
Full stop (τελεία)
‘.’
‘,’
‘·’
‘.’
‘,’
‘;’
Colon
(διπλή άνω και κάτω
τελεία)
‘:’
‘:’
Question mark
(ερωτηματικό)
‘;’
‘?’
Exclamation mark
(θαυμαστικό)
‘!’
‘!’
Parentheses
(παρενθέσεις)
‘()’
‘()’
Comma (κόμμα)
Raised point semicolon
(άνω τελεία)
The stress-mark


The stress mark (΄) is used, in every word with more than one syllable
(with few exceptions), to show the primary or main stressed syllable
in the word.
Some simple rules:
1. The stress mark always falls on one of the vowels and never on
a consonant
2. The stress mark is placed over the appropriate vowel if lowercase, and beside it if upper-case:
ά but Ά, έ but Έ, ή but Ή, ί but Ί, ό but Ό, ύ but Ύ
3. If a word is entirely in upper-case letters, the stress accent is
omitted altogether. However, if a word stars with upper-case letter
and lower-case letters follow then a stressed mark is required i.e.:
Έξοδος but ΕΞΟΔΟΣ (Exit)
Be careful sometimes the meaning of otherwise identical words is
determined the position of the stress-mark i.e.:
Ο γέρος = The old man, but γερός = robust, able bodied
Some useful observations
 In modern Greek all ο’s and ι’s have exactly the same
pronunciation :
Sound
i as in
o as in lot
machine
Letter
Η η, Ι ι, Υ υ
Ο ο, Ω ω
• So why bother with so many different ο’s & ι’s ?
Well this has not always been the case. Indeed, in Ancient
Greek each letter was pronounced differently : ( η as the
French ê in ‘tête’, υ as short French u in ‘lune’, while ω as aw
in ‘saw’ or long o in ‘go’). In order to both preserve the
beauty of the Greek Language and be able to trace modern
words back to their ancient origins, we keep the different ι’s
and ο’s even though we pronounce them in exactly the same
way.
Greek-English differences
 Consistency between spelling &
pronunciation of the Greek letters.
Contrary to popular belief Greek is not a
difficult language to speak, particularly at
the beginners level. Unlike English, the
same letter or combination of letters, is
pronounced in exactly the same way
wherever it occurs.
Two letter vowels (diphthongs)
Letter Upper
& lower case
ΑΙ, αι
ΕΙ, ει
ΟΙ, οι
ΟΥ, ου
Name of letter
Greek
Transliteration
άλφα –
γιώτα
έψιλονγιώτα
όμικρονγιώτα
όμικρονύψιλον
Letter
Sound
Examples
as in :
álfa-yóta e
set
épsilon- ι/e
yóta
ómikron- i/e
yóta
ómikron- u/oo
ípsilon
machine/
these
machine/
these
put/soon
Two letter vowels (diphthongs)
Letter Upper
& lower case
ΑΥ, αυ
ΑΥ, αυ
ΕΥ, ευ
ΕΥ, ευ
Name of letter
Greek
άλφα –
ύψιλον
άλφα –
ύψιλον
έψιλονύψιλον
έψιλονύψιλον
Transliteration
álfaípsilon
álfaípsilon
épsilonípsilon
épsilonípsilon
Letter
Sound
Examples
as in :
af,
θ,κ,ξ
av
β,γ,δ,
ef
θ,κ,ξ
ev
β,γ,δ,
after,
π,σ,φ,χ,ψ
avenue
ζ,λ,μ,ν,ρ
effort
π,σ,φ,χ,ψ
ever
ζ,λ,μ,ν,ρ
Double-vowels are pronounced
separately if:
 A diaeresis diacritic (i.e.: “¨”) falls upon the second
of the two adjacent vowels (i.e.: γαϊδάρου
“donkey” [gen.]).
 An accent falls upon the first of the two adjacent
vowels (i.e.: γάιδαρος “donkey [nom]).
However, if the accent falls upon the second of the
two adjacent vowels then a diaeresis is needed in
order for the vowels to be pronounced separately!
(i.e.: καΐκι [wooden boat, ketch]).
Let’s Practice – try to pronounce the
following words
Greek word
Meaning
ευτράπελος
facetious
Εύβοια
ευφυής
bright - clever
θεϊκός
divine
γάιδαρος
donkey
παύω
cease
υιοθετώ
adopt
Transliteration
Two-letters consonants (double
sounds)
Letter Upper &
lower case
γκ
(γκρεμός
Αγκάθι)
Μπ
(Μπαούλο
Αμπέλι)
ντ
(ντύνω
πέντε)
Letter
Transliteration Sound
Name of letter
Greek
Examples
as in :
Γάμακάπα
ghámakápa
g/
ng
go/
England
μι –
πι
mi –
pi
b/
mp
Boy/
amber
νιταυ
nitáf
d/
nd
day/
end
Some useful observations
 In Greek a noun (i.e.: the word Canadian in the phrase I
am Canadian) has to be written differently when it denotes
different gender:
– Είμαι Καναδός – I am Canadian (man)
– Είμαι Καναδέζα – I am Canadian (woman)
– That means that Greek nouns are inflected for gender
 In Greek a noun has to be written also differently when is
being used as an object than as a subject:
– Είμαι από τον Καναδά – I am from Canada
– Ο Καναδάς είναι η πατρίδα μου – Canada is my homeland
– That means that Greek nouns are inflected for case also
 In Greek a noun is almost always preceded by an article (the).
The noun and the preceding article have to agree in gender,
case and number.
Differences between Greek-English
languages continued..
 In Greek almost all words within a noun phrase
(noun, article, adjective, pronoun) are declinable in
gender, number and case. In English this happens
only with the pronouns!
– She went to the store.
The clerk greeted her and handed over a small
package.
The new camera was hers at last!
 Moreover, within a noun phrase all other
declinable words must agree with the noun in
gender, number and case.
How on Earth we can guess the
gender of a given Greek noun?
Some tips:
 All masculine nouns (nominative/singular)
end in “ς”
 Almost all feminine nouns end in either “α or
η”
 Most neuter nouns end in “ο, ι, or μα”
 Of course, there are exceptions, and there
are those words ending in “ος”, which can
be of any gender.
Differences between Greek- English
 The normal order of a sentence in Greek is like that
in English: subject, verb, object. There is no special
tendency as in Latin to put the verb at the end.
However, Greek can vary the order for purposes of
emphasis or euphony much more freely than in
English. For example:
Ο Χρήστος κυνηγάει τη Μαρία but also Tη
Μαρία κυνηγάει ο Χρήστος. (Christos chases
Mary).
 Thus, when you translate from Greek you have to
concentrate at the case of the noun (illustrated by its
inflectional ending) rather than its order within the
sentence.
Differences between Greek- English
 You will be pleased to know that to ask questions
in Greek there are no changes in word order as in
English , such as you are – are you?, or the
addition of extra words (you love me – do you love
me?).
 You just have to remember that the pitch of your
voice goes up:
– Eίσαι Ιρλανδός means you are Irish when the pitch of
your voice goes down at the end and are you Irish?
when the pitch of your voice goes up at the end
Personal Pronouns
 Personal pronouns (I, you, he, they) are used to
refer to the three grammatical persons and are
also part of the English verbs since they define
who is doing or receiving the action. Even though
Greek has equivalent corresponding words they
are normally left out and mostly used only for
emphasis
(i.e.: Εσύ, τι κάνεις εδώ; You [and nobody else!],
what are you doing here;)
Differences between Greek- English
 While in English the personal pronoun is always used
together with the verb in order to distinguish the person
that it is referring to, in Greek this is not necessary.
The ending of the verb itself differs from the first person
to the second and so on, and this indicates whether the
speaker is referring to himself or herself, or to another
person or persons:
Sg.
1 είμαι
I am
2 είσαι
you are
3 είναι
(s)he/it is
Pl.
1 είμαστε we are
2
είστε
2
3
είσαστε
είναι
they are
You are
Asking for something in a shop
Greek
Τι θέλετε;
Μπορώ να σας
βοηθήσω;
Ορίστε;
Pronunciation
English
Ti thelete?
Mporo na sas
voithiso?
Oriste?
What do you want?
Θέλω ένα/μία …
Yes?
thelo ena/mia .. I want a …
Μήπως έχετε;
Mipos echete
Do you have?
Ναι, έχουμε
Ne, echoume
Yes, we have
Δυστυχώς μας
τελείωσε/τελείωσαν
THistichos, mas
Can I help you?
Unfortunately, we
teliose/teliosan have not any/have
sold out
Saying how much you want
Greek
Πόσο/Πόσα
θέλετε;
Θέλω ένα κιλό
ντομάτες
Θέλω μισό κιλό
φασολάκια
Θέλω ένα τέταρτο
ελιές
Pronunciation
Poso/Posa
thelete;
thelo ena kilo
domates
thelo miso kilo
fasolakia
thelo ena tetarto
elies
Θέλω τετρακόσια
thelo tetrakosia
πενήντα γραμμάρια peninda gramaria
λεμόνια
lemonia
English
How much/many do
you want?
I want a kilo of
tomatoes
I want half a kilo
of green beans
I want a quarter
of a kilo of olives
I want 450g of
lemons
Saying how much you want …
Greek
Pronunciation
English
Θέλω …
thelo…
I want …
ένα πακέτο
μπισκότα/
βούτυρο
μία φραντζόλα
ψωμί
ένα κομμάτι τυρί
ena paketo
biskota/
vutiro (vootiro)
mia frantzola
psomi
ena komati tiri
Ένα μπουκάλι νερό ena bukali
ένα βάζο μέλι
(bookali) nero
ena bazo meli
a packet of
biscuits/
butter
a loaf of bread
a piece of cheese
a bottle of water
a jar of honey
Asking how much it costs?
 Πόσο κάνει /κοστίζει αυτό; (poso kani/ kostizi
afto?)
– How much is it?
 Κάνει / κοστίζει 6 ευρώ (kani exi evro)
– It’s 6 euros
 Πόσο κάνουν(ε) / κοστίζουν αυτά (poso kanune/
kostizoon afta?)
– How much are they?
 Κάνουν(ε) / κοστίζουν 8 ευρώ και 50 λεπτά
(kanune ochto evro ke peninda lepta)
– They are 8 euros and 50.
Money matters!
Greek
Τα χρήματα /
λεφτά
English
Money
Το ευρώ
Pronunciation
Ta chrimata /
lefta
To evro
Το λεπτό
To lepto
Cent
Τα κέρματα
Τα
χαρτονομίσματα
Τα ψιλά / ρέστα
Ta kermata
Ta
chartonomismata
Ta psila / resta
Coins
Paper money
Euro*
Change
* The current (20/06/2005) exchange rate is 1.00 EUR = 0.667 GBP
or 1 GBP = 1.499 EUR
Telling the time in Greek
 Telling the time is not difficult. You just have
to remember that in Greek we put first the
hour and then the minutes:
– ten (minutes) past five
– Πέντε και δέκα (λεπτά)
 When telling the time, the numbers 1,3,4
change to: 1-> μία, 3 -> τρεις, 4 -> τέσσερις
Essential ‘telling the time’ Vocabulary
πέντε
5
ώρα
hour
δέκα
10
ώρες
hours
είκοσι
20
λεπτό
minute
είκοσι πέντε
25
λεπτά
minutes
και
past
πμ
am
παρά
to
μμ
pm
και τέταρτο
quarter past ακριβώς
exactly/sharp
παρά τέταρτο quarter to
νωρίς
early
και μισή
αργά
late
half past
Asking for the time
Greek
Transliteration
English
Τι ώρα είναι;
ti ora ine?
What time is
it?
Έχετε ώρα;
echete ora?
Do you have
the time?
Μπορείτε να μου
πείτε την ώρα;
mporite na mu pite
tin ora?
Can you tell
me the time?
Ξέρετε τι ώρα
είναι;
xerete ti ora ine
Do you know
what time is
it?
Καλό ταξίδι (Bon voyage) – Means
of transportation
Greek
Tο καράβι
Το αεροπλάνο
Pronunciation
To karavi
To aeroplano
English
The boat
The aeroplane
Το τραίνο
To treno
The train
Το λεωφορείο
Το πούλμαν
To leoforeeo
The bus
The coach
Το δελφίνι
Το εισιτήριο
Απλό/με
επιστροφή
“Flying dolphin”
To THelfini
To isitirio
The ticket
Aplo / me epistrofi Single / return
To pulman/poolman
Finding out travel times
Greek
Pronunciation
English
Τι ώρα φεύγει το
λεωφορείο;
Το λεωφορείο
φεύγει στις έξι το
πρωί / σε μία ώρα
Πόση ώρα διαρκεί
το ταξίδι;
Ti ora fevgi to leoforeeo What time does the
bus lives?
To leoforeeo fevgi stis The bus leaves at 6
eksi / se mia ora
in the morning/ in
one hour
Posi oraTHiarki to
How long does the
taksiTHi
journey take?
(Το ταξίδι) διαρκεί
τρεις ώρες
Τι ώρα φτάνει το
καράβι;
Το καράβι φτάνει
στις επτά το βράδυ
(To taksiTHi) THiarki
tris ores
Ti ora ftani to karavi?
to karavi ftani stis epta
It takes 3 hours
What time does the
boat arrive?
The boat arrives at
7 in the evening
Buying Tickets
Greek
Pronunciation
English
Πότε φεύγει το
καράβι για την Τζιά;
Φεύγει (για την
Τζιά) στις δέκα το
πρωί
Θέλω ένα εισιτήριο
παρακαλώ
Pote fevgi to karavi gia
thn Tzia?
Fevgi (gia tin Tzia) stis
THeka to proi
Thelo ena isitirio
parakalo
When does the boat
for Tzia leave?
It leaves (for Tzia)
at 10 in the
morning
I want one ticket
please
Απλό ή με
επιστροφή?
Με επιστροφή
παρακαλώ. Πόσο
κάνει;
Είκοσι ευρώ. Ορίστε
Aplo i me epistrofi
Single or return?
Me epistrofi parakalo.
Poso kanei?
Return please. How
much is it?
Ikosi evro. Oriste
€20. Here you are
Learner A gives the prompts by starting the dialogue
and learner B has to choose which of the responses
on his/her card is appropriate.
€ 35
Καλή όρεξη
 The waiter might say:
Greek
Pronunciation
English
Τι θέλετε;
Ti thelete?
What do you want?
Τι θα πάρετε
Ti tha parete?
Παρακαλώ
Ορίστε;
Τι θα φάτε;
Τι θα πιείτε;
Parakalo?
Oriste?
Ti tha fate
What will you
take?
Please?
Yes?
What will you eat?
Ti tha pyeete
What will you drink?
Καλή όρεξη
 You might say:
Greek
Pronunciation
English
Θέλω
Θέλουμε
Θα πάρω
Θα πάρουμε
Τον κατάλογο
παρακαλώ
Thelo
Theloumay
Tha paro
Tha paroumay
Ton katalogo
parakalo
I want
We want
Τι έχετε;
Μήπως έχετε;
Ti echete?
What do you have?
Mipos echete?
I wonder if you have?
I will take
We will take
The menu please
Places to eat
Greek
Pronunciation
English
Ταβέρνα
Εστιατόριο
Ψαροταβέρνα
Taverna
Estiatorio
Psarotaverna
Ψησταριά
Psistaria
Grills
mezeTHopolio Tavern offering a
Μεζεδοπωλείο
Tavern
Restaurant
Fish tavern
plethora of appetizers
Understanding a Greek menu
Greek
Pronunciation
English
Ορεκτικά
Orektika
Starters
Της ώρας
Ψητά
Σαλάτες
Ths oras
Dishes cooked to order
Psita
Κρασάτ-ος(-η,-ο)
Grills
Salates
Salads
Glika
Desserts
Vrast-os(i,o) Boiled
Tiganitos(i,o) Fried
Krasat-os(i,o) In wine
Γεμιστ-ός(-ή,-ό)
Gemistos(i,o) Stuffed
Στο φούρνο
Sto fourno
Γλυκά
Βραστ-ός(-ή,-ό)
Τηγανιτ-ός(-ή,-ό)
Baked
Ορεκτικά
Greek
Τζατζίκι
Pronunciation
tzatziki
English
Yoghurt-cucumber dip
Ταραμοσαλάτα
taramosalata taramasalata
Μελιτζανοσαλάτα melitzanosalata Aubergine dip
Καλαμαράκια
Kalamarakia Squid
Φέτα
Feta
Feta cheese
Σαγανάκι
Saganaki
Fried cheese
Γαρίδες σαγανάκι
gariTHes
saganaki
Fried shrimps
Ορεκτικά
Greek
Pronunciation
English
ντολμάδες
dolmaTHes
Λουκάνικο
χωριάτικο
Loukaniko
choriatiko
Γίγαντες
Gigantes
Beans (big)
Μελιτζάνες τηγανιτές
Melitzanes
gemistes
Fried aubergine
Πατάτες τηγανιτές
Patates
tiganites
French fries
Ποικιλία
Pikilia
Assorted appetizers
Rice or rice and
minced meat wrapped
in vine leaves
Spiced sausage
Της Ώρας
Greek
Μπριζόλα
(μοσχαρίσια/χοιρινή)
Σουβλάκια
Pronunciation
English
Steak (veal, pork)
Brizola
(moscharisia/
chirini)
Souvlakia
Chunks of pork
on a skewer
Κεφτέδες
KefteTHes
Grilled meat balls
Λουκάνικα
Loukanika
Sausages
Παϊδάκια
PaiTHakia
Lamb chops
Κιμάδες (minced meat dishes)
Greek
Pronunciation
Μουσακάς
Mousakas
Παστίτσιο
Pastitsio
Μακαρόνια με
κιμά
Makaronia
me kima
Ντομάτες γεμιστές Domates
gemistes
Πιπεριές γεμιστές Piperies
gemistes
English
Layers of aubergine,
potatoes and minced meat
topped with béchamel
sauce
As above but with
spaghetti instead of
aubergine
Spaghetti with mince
Tomatoes stuffed with rice
and minced meat
Green peppers stuffed
with rice and minced meat
Σαλάτες
Greek
Χωριάτικη σαλάτα
Pronunciation
English
Greek salad
(lit: villager’s salad)
Λάχανο
Choriatiki
salata
Lachano
Μαρούλι
Marouli
Lettuce
Αγγούρι
Angouri
Cucumber
Τονοσαλάτα
Tonosalata
Tuna salad
Εποχής
Epochis
Season Salad
Cabbage
Try to repeat and translate the following
dialogue
Waiter: Καλημέρα σας
You: Γεια σας. Τον κατάλογο παρακαλώ
Waiter: Ορίστε. Τι θα πιείτε;
You: Ένα μπουκάλι κόκκινο κρασί, δυο μπύρες, ένα
καραφάκι ούζο και ένα μπουκάλι εμφιαλωμένο νερό
παρακαλώ.
Waiter:Μάλιστα, τι θα φάτε;
You: Μία τονοσαλάτα, ένα μουσακά, μία γίγαντες και δύο
σουβλάκια παρακαλώ
Waiter:Αμέσως ………….. Ορίστε, καλή όρεξη
…….. After the meal ……..
You: Να σας πληρώσω;
Waiter:Μάλιστα. Πενήντα τέσσερα ευρώ παρακαλώ
You: Ορίστε εξήντα. Κρατήστε τα ρέστα. ‘Ήταν πολύ
νόστιμα
Waiter:Σας ευχαριστώ πολύ. Γεια σας.