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Church History EIIT 11 Brief Timeline of Church History Taken from http://www.saintignatiuschurch.org/timeline.html#timechart 33 Pentecost (A.D: 29 is thought to be more accurate). 49 Council at Jerusalem (Acts 15) establishes precedent for addressing Church disputes in Council. James presides as bishop. 69 Bishop Ignatius consecrated in Antioch in heart of New Testament era--St. Peter had been the first bishop there. Other early bishops include James, Polycarp, and Clement. 95 Book of Revelation written, probably the last of the New Testament books. 150 St. Justin Martyr describe's the liturgical worship of the Church, centered in the Eucharist. Liturgical worship is rooted in both the Old and New Testament. 325 The Nicene Creed is established. The Council of Nicea settles the major heretical challenge to the Christian faith when the heretic Arius asserts Christ was created by the Father. St. Athanasius defends the eternality of the Son of God. The Arians continue their assault on true Christianity for years. Nicea is the first of Seven Ecumenical (Church-wide) Councils. 451 Council of Chalcedon affirms apostolic doctrine of two natures in Christ. 589 In a synod in Toledo, Spain, the filioque, asserting that the Holy Spirit procedes from the Father and the Son is added to the Nicene Creed. This error is later adopted by Rome. 787 The era of Ecumenical Councils ends at Nicea, with the Seventh Council bringing the centuries-old use of icons back into the Church. 988 Conversion of Russia begins. We knew not whether we were in heaven or on earth, for surely there is no such splendour or beauty anywhere upon earth. We cannot describe it to you: only this we know, that God dwells there among men, and that their service surpasses the worship of all other places. For we cannot forget that beauty. - Envoys of the Russian Prince Vladimir, after experiencing the Divine Liturgy at the Church of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople in the year 987. 1054 The Great Schism occurs. Two major issues include Rome's claim to a universal papal supremacy and her addition of the filioque clause to the Nicene Creed. The Photian schism (880) further complicated the debate. 1095 The Crusades begun by the Roman Church. The Sack of Constantinople by Rome (1204) adds to the estrangement between East and W est. 1333 St. Gregory Palamas defends the Orthodox practice of hesychast spirituality and the use of the Jesus prayer. 1453 Turks overrun Constantinople; Byzantine Empire ends. 1517 Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses to the door of the Roman Church in Wittenberg, starting the Protestant Reformation. 1529 Church of England begins pulling away from Rome. Module 1, Introduction Module 1, People Plato (c.427-347 B.C.) and Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). Why are they important? Their ideas influenced Christian theology. Read about Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, Click Here. Read about Aristotle, Click Here. Xenophon (c.427-355 B.C.) He wrote quotes from Socrates and other philosophical works. Click Here to read more about him. Livy (c.59 B.C. – 17 A.D.) Historian. Click Here to read more. Josephus (c. 37 – 100 A.D.) Jewish Historian who wrote about the early Church and Jesus’ life. Click Here to read more. Von Tischendorf and Codex Sinaiticus. The Codex was written between 330–350 A.D. and was a complete version of the New Testament, and parts of the Old Testament. There were also some additional books. Von Tischendorf discovered it at the Monastery of St. Catherine at Mt. Sinai in 1859. To read more, Click Here. Leopold von Ranke (1795 – 1886) German Historian and founder of Scientific History. Read More. Historiography – Basic Issues Historiography is the study of the practice of history. (Taken from Wikipedia) Some of the common questions of historiography are: Who wrote the source (primary or secondary)? For primary sources, we look at the person in his or her society, for secondary sources, we consider the theoretical orientation of the approach for example, Marxist or Annales School, ("total history"), political history, etc. What is the authenticity, authority, bias/interest, and intelligibility of the source? What was the view of history when the source was written? Was history supposed to provide moral lessons? What or who was the intended audience? What sources were privileged or ignored in the narrative? By what method was the evidence compiled? In what historical context was the work of history itself written? Issues engaged in so-called critical historiography includes topics such as: What constitutes an historical "event"? In what modes does a historian write and produce statements of "truth" and "fact"? How does the medium (novel, textbook, film, theatre, comic) through which historical information is conveyed influence its meaning? What inherent epistemological problems does archive-based history contain? How does the historian establish their own objectivity or come to terms with their own subjectivity? What is the relation of historical theory to historical practice? What is the "goal" of history? What is history? Module 1 – More Important Words Koine Greek - Koine Greek (Κοινὴ Ἑλληνική) means the Greek Language used during Jesus Time (c.300 BC – AD 300). The New Testament was written in Koine Greek. Roman Kingdom/Republic/Empire – Romans have had almost every type of government. Read More about the Roman government. Dead Sea Scrolls – Scripture, hidden in clay jars in caves by the Dead Sea. They were discovered recently. Read More. Module 2, Introduction Module 2 – History and Early Christianity How can historical study tie us to both the scriptural witness and to the early church? Peter – St. Peter the Apostle. For more information, Click Here. Paul – St. Paul the Apostle. For more information, Click Here. John – St. John the Apostle. For more information, Click Here. Marcion of Sinope (ca. 110-160 A.D.) founder of what would later be called Marcionism, and one of the first to be strongly denounced by other Christians Justin Martyr (100 – 165 A.D.) Early philosopher that converted to Christianity and taught the faith powerfully. Click Here for more. Didache (70 – 160 A.D.) Early instructions for Christian communities. Read a summary of the Didache, Click Here. Module 2 Continued House Churches – worshippers meeting in homes, Read more, Click Here. Gnostics (2nd and 3rd Century AD) false teaching that emphasized secret hidden knowledge. Read more, Click Here. Jews – early Christians were Jews. Read More. Baptismal Creeds – Short creeds that were said at baptism in the early Church. Later creeds were based upon these short creeds. Read More. Emperor Worship – Romans worshipped their emperor, but Christians didn’t. Romans persecuted Christians. Read More. Pantheon – Roman building dedicated to all the gods. Read More. Module 3, Introduction Module 3 – Arguments and Theological Development in the Early Church What are the roles of orthodoxy and dissent in the life and ministry of the church? Orthodoxy vs. Heterodoxy: Ortho (straight) dox (teaching) versus Hetero (other) doxy (teaching). Read More. Origen (ca. 185 – 254 A.D.) Origen formed a theology with some ideas from Greek philosophy. Read More. Arius (256-336 A.D.) was an early theologian who taught that the Son of God was not eternal, but was subordinate to God the Father. This belief was called Arianism. Read More. Athanasius (298 – 373 A.D.) Bishop of Alexandria, struggled against the Arians. Read More. Jerome (347 – 420 A.D.) Converted to Christianity and translated the Bible. Read More. Nestorius , Nestorianism (386 – 451 A.D.) believed that Jesus existed as two person, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than one person. Read More. Module 3 Continued Eutyches – Eutychianism (Monophysitism) believed that after the union of the two natures, the human and the divine, Christ had only one nature, that of the incarnate Word, and therefore His human body was essentially different from other human bodies. Read More. Cappadocian Fathers (4th Century A.D.) helped to formulate the doctrine of the Trinity. Read More. Filioque – East/West Church Schism: The Latin phrase means “And the Son” talking about the Holy Spirit proceeding from the Son also. This caused a split between the eastern church and the western church. The eastern church would not accept the filioque. Read More. Apostles’ Creed: The oldest of the three ecumenical Creeds. Read More. Module 4, Introduction Module 4 – The Church in a Time of Social Upheaval In what ways has the church functioned through missions in the spread of salvation, the preserver of higher culture and a damper on paganism? Leo I: (? – 461 A.D.) The pope who met with Attila the Hun. Read More. Justinian (483 - 565 A.D.) Roman Emperor. He rewrote the legal code and lead many conquests including re-conquering Rome from the Ostrogoths. Read More. Attila the Hun (405 – 463 A.D.) He reigned over Europe’s largest Hun empire. Read More. Theodoric the Ostrogoth (475 – 526 A.D.) Educated by Leo in Constantinople, became King of the Ostrogoths. Read More. Boethius: (480 – ca. 524) “Last of the Romans” philosopher and believed to be a Christian martyr. Read More. Clovis: (466 – 511) King of the Franks who united the nation. Read More. Charles Mantel (688 – 741) “Mayor of the Palace” Read More. Pepin the Short (714-768) King of Franks, son of Charles Mantel. Read More. Module 4 - Continued Ireland: Irish history really begins with Saint Patrick, who converted Ireland to Christianity. Read More. Charlemagne: (born 742) Holy Roman Emperor, Read More. Bulgars: group of people who lived north of the Caucus. Read More. Constantinople: (Now Istanbul) center of the eastern church. Read More. Islam is a monotheistic religion based upon the Qur'an, its principal scripture. Islam's followers, known as Muslims, believe God (Arabic: Allāh) revealed the Qur'an to Muhammad and that Muhammad is God's final prophet, Read More. Vandals: an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. Read More. Lombards: a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. Read More. Visigoths: western Germanic tribe. First seen in 268 when they invaded the Roman Empire and swarmed over the Balkan peninsula. Read More. Ostrogoths: eastern Germanic tribe that influenced political events of the late Roman Empire. Read More. Gregory the Great: (ca. 540 – March 12, 604) was Pope from September 3, 590 until his death. Read More. Module 5, Introduction Module 5 – The Church as Supporter of Society and the State How has the church helped develop strong Christian states and supported these states through social ministries and the preservation of piety? Monks – Monasticism – Monastic Orders: Read More. Benedict of Nursia: Founder of western monasticism. Developed the “Rule of St. Benedict” that the Benedictine Monks follow. Read More. Gregory the Great: Benedict wrote his biography. Read More. St. Francis of Assisi: (ca. 1181 – 1226) Founder of the Franciscan Order, Read More. Alcuin: (735; died 19 May, 804 ) Educator, scholar and theologian. Secular Clergy: ministers who do not belong to religious orders and don’t follow a “Rule”. Priests and deacons are secular clergy, they work with people. Read More. Regular Clergy: Clergy that follow a regulum or rule (like the Rule of St. Benedict) and take religious orders. Monks are regular clergy. Read More. Module 5 - Continued Those who Prayed/Fought/Worked Pepin the Short: (714-768) King of Franks, son of Charles Mantel. Read More. Charlemagne: Son of Pepin, ruled as emperor and King of the Franks. Read More. And More Cathedral Schools: In the middle ages schools run by the cathedral clergy and used as seminaries to train priests, Read More. Holy Roman Empire: a successor state to the empire founded in 800 by Charlemagne who was called the Roman emperor in the West. Read More. Dominic/Dominicans: Dominic founded the Dominicans, the Order of Preachers. Read More. Read about Dominic, Click Here. Module 6, Introduction Module 6 – Church and State – An Uneasy Alliance What are the limits of the use and abuse of power in the church in its role in society and the state? Popes and Monarchs: Who had the power, church or state? It went back and forth between the popes and the kings. Otto I: Roman emperor and German king, b. in 912; d. at Memleben, 7 May, 973, Read More. Creation of Poland (largely by the Pope): 966 A.D. when prince Mieszko accepted Christianity, Read More. Thomas Beckett/Henry II – England: Beckett was martyred by King Henry II. Beckett was the king’s chancellor and rose to Archbishop of Canterbury. He was assassinated. Read More. Investiture: appointments of church officials (Investiture Controversy – Read More) Kings wanted to invest the clergy, That caused a controversy and struggle with the church. Ecclesiastical Courts/ Royal Courts: Church courts versus king’s courts. Module 6 - Continued Gregory VII: Reformer who played a part in the Investiture Controversy against Henry IV, Read More Henry IV: (1050-1106) Holy Roman Emperor: Against Pope Gregory VII in the Investiture Controversy. Read More Louis of Bavaria: (1282-1347) The quarrel between John XXII and Louis of Bavaria concerning the relations of Church and State. Read More. Pope Innocent III: (1161-1216) Believed kings were subjects of popes. Powerful pope. Read More. Emperor Sigismund: (1361-1437) King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor. He brought about reform in the Councils of Constance and Basle. Read More. Urban II: Started the first crusade ca. 1095 in Clermont Ferrand, France (Paula stood on the spot where he started the crusade). Read More. Fourth Lateran Council: (1215) Called by Pope Innocent III. Read More. Cathedrals (Romanesque and Gothic): Romanesque cathedrals used arches and vaults. They were heavy, thick stone. Gothic cathedrals were taller, used flying buttresses to give height. See More. Module 7, Introduction Module 7 – Using the Mind to Study God Is Christianity necessarily always simple, or can one study God and worship using the potential of the mind? Isidore of Seville: (560-636) Archbishop of Seville for more than 30 years and has the reputation of being one of the great scholars of the early Middle Ages. All the later medieval history-writing of Spain were based on his histories. Read More. Venerable Bede: (ca. 672 – 735) A monk and a scholar. Read More. John Scotus: (c. 1266 – November 8, 1308) was a theologian, philosopher, and logician. Read More. Albert Magnus: Known as Albert the Great; scientist, philosopher, and theologian, born c. 1206; died at Cologne, 15 November 1280. Read More. Averröes: (1126-1198) Averroes tried to reconcile Aristotle's system of thought with Islam. According to him, there is no conflict between religion and philosophy, rather that they are different ways of reaching the same truth. He believed in the eternity of the universe. He also held that the soul is divided into two parts, one individual and one divine; while the individual soul is not eternal, all humans at the basic level share one and the same divine soul. Read More. Anselm of Canterbury: (1033-1109) was the outstanding Christian philosopher and theologian of the eleventh century. Read More. Module 7 - Continued Peter Abelard: 1079-1142. Abelard was a French philosopher and theologian. He was a famous teacher and intellectual. Read More. Thomas Aquinas: (1225-1274) Aquinas worked to create a philosophical system which integrated Christian doctrine with elements taken from the philosophy of Aristotle. Read More. William of Occam: (1285-1349) Theologian and philosopher. Used a philosophy of simplicity, the simple life. Ockham's razor. The rule, which said that plurality should not be assumed without necessity (or, in modern English, keep it simple, stupid) Read More. Paris University: founded c. 1170 in France. It grew out of the cathedral schools of Notre-Dame and, with papal support, soon became a great centre of Christian orthodox teaching. Read More. Scholasticism: Theology and philosophy that used Aristotle’s teachings. Read More. Realism: The belief that reality exists without people watching (observing). Read More. Nominalism: Philosophy of William of Ockham (Occam). The belief that various objects labeled by the same term have nothing in common but their name. Read More. Module 8, Introduction Module 8 – Responding to Disaster, Dissent and Heresy What guiding principles can we glean from the way the Christian church has handled both potential and actual hardship and dissent? Famine: Read More. Bubonic Plague: Almost half of Europe died with the plague. Read More. And More. 100 Years War: Fighting started in 1393 because the Kings of England - descendants of William the Conqueror who still spoke French -wanted to rule France as well. France was weak and divided and the French king died. Read More. Babylonian Captivity of Church (Not Luther’s): the Avignon Papacy Avignon Papacy: the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, lived in Avignon. Read More. Great Schism of Western Church: a split within the Catholic church in 1378 because of politics, it was ended by the Council of Constance in 1417. It is occasionally called the Great Schism, though this term is more often applied to the East-West Schism of 1054. Read More. Module 8 - Continued Wycliffe: In 1382 he translated an English Bible--the first European translation done in over 1,000 years. Read More. Hus: (1369-1415) a Czech religious thinker, philosopher, reformer, and master at Charles University in Prague. His followers became known as Hussites. The Roman Catholic Church considered his teachings heretical, and Hus was excommunicated in 1411, condemned by the Council of Constance, and burned at the stake. Read More. Sigismund: (1368-1437) Holy Roman Emperor. Read More. Conciliar Theory: a theory that a general council of the church has greater authority than the pope and may, if necessary, depose him. Read More. Peter Waldo/Waldensians: (late 12th Century) followers of Peter Waldo lived a life of poverty to follow Jesus. Read More. Albigensians/Cathari: belief that the material world is evil and that humans must renounce the world to free their spirits, which are good and long for communion with God. Jesus was seen as an angel whose human suffering and death were an illusion. Read More. Spiritual Fransiscans: mendicant (begging) religious order founded by St. Francis of Assisi in 1209 and dedicated to the virtues of humility and poverty. It is now divided into three independent branches. Read More. Beguines/ Beghards: religious associations of women in Europe, established in the 12th century. Read More. Module 9, Introduction Module 9 – Setting the Stage for the Reformation In what ways were conditions ripe for Reformation in the latter part of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance? Gabriel Biel: (1420-1495) German philosopher, economist, and Scholastic theologian. Read More. Thomas À Kempis: German priest and writer of devotional literature, including The Imitation of Christ (1426). Read More. The Brothers of the Common Life: a religious Roman Catholic community founded in the 14th century by Geert Groote. Read More. Renaissance Humanism: late 1300’s social movement focusing on human dignity and potential. Read More. Francis Petrarch: (1304-1374) Father of Humanism. Read More. Lorenzo Valla: (c. 1406 - August 1, 1457) was an Italian humanist, rhetorician, and educator. Read More. Niccolo Machiavelli: (1469-1527) Important man in the Renaissance. Most well known for his book, The Prince, where he describes how a prince can keep control of his kingdom. Read More. Desiderius Erasmus: (1466 – 1536) Dutch humanist and theologian who published a new translation of the Greek New Testament. Read More. Module 9 - Continued Manuel Chrysoloras: (1355-1415) Brought Greek literature to western Europe. Read More. Maximillian I: (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor. He expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg through both war and marriage. Read More. The War of the Roses: a series of civil wars fought in medieval England from 1455 to 1487 between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. Read More. Henry VII: (1457 – 1509) Son of Edmund Tutor who became King of England and founded the Tudor dynasty. Read More. Fractured Germany: Read about the history of Germany and the Hussite Wars, Click Here. The Golden Bull: named the seven Kurfürsten or prince-electors who were to choose the King of the Romans, who would then usually be crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope later. Read More. Module 9 - Continued Electoral Saxony: in 1356 the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV issued the Golden Bull, the fundamental law of the empire which settled the method of electing the emperor, the Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg was made one of the seven electorates and promoted to become the Electorate of Saxony. Read More. Papal Catholic – Italy: The states where the pope was the ruler. Read More. Savonarola: Italian Dominican priest and leader of Florence from 1494 until his execution in 1498. Read More. Geiler Von Kaisersberg: (March 16, 1445 – March 10, 1510), Swiss-born preacher, considered one of the greatest of the popular preachers of the 15th century. Read More. Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain (Exploration and Reconquista): Sent many explorers and conquerors to the new world (including Columbus). Read More. Unified Catholic Spain: Those who were other religions were given the choice of exile or conversion. Read More. French Monarchy: In France, success (under Joan of Arc) getting rid of the English gave French people pride. This played into the hands of French kings Louis XI (1461-1483) and Charles VIII (1483-1498), who strengthened royal power greatly. More about the Renaissance – Good site. English Parliament: Read the history of the English Parliament, Click Here. The Councils Open the file: EcumenicalCouncils.pdf to see the full list of church councils and their dates and what they decided. If you click on the links, you will go to a website and can read more.