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Transcript
Church History
EIIT 11
Brief Timeline of Church History
Taken from http://www.saintignatiuschurch.org/timeline.html#timechart
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33 Pentecost (A.D: 29 is thought to be more accurate).
49 Council at Jerusalem (Acts 15) establishes precedent for addressing Church disputes in Council. James presides as bishop. 69 Bishop Ignatius consecrated in
Antioch in heart of New Testament era--St. Peter had been the first bishop there. Other early bishops include James, Polycarp, and Clement.
95 Book of Revelation written, probably the last of the New Testament books.
150 St. Justin Martyr describe's the liturgical worship of the Church, centered in the Eucharist. Liturgical worship is rooted in both the Old and New Testament.
325 The Nicene Creed is established. The Council of Nicea settles the major heretical challenge to the Christian faith when the heretic Arius asserts Christ was created by
the Father. St. Athanasius defends the eternality of the Son of God. The Arians continue their assault on true Christianity for years. Nicea is the first of Seven Ecumenical
(Church-wide) Councils.
451 Council of Chalcedon affirms apostolic doctrine of two natures in Christ.
589 In a synod in Toledo, Spain, the filioque, asserting that the Holy Spirit procedes from the Father and the Son is added to the Nicene Creed. This error is later adopted
by Rome.
787 The era of Ecumenical Councils ends at Nicea, with the Seventh Council bringing the centuries-old use of icons back into the Church.
988 Conversion of Russia begins.
We knew not whether we were in heaven or on earth, for surely there is no such splendour or beauty anywhere upon earth. We cannot describe it to you: only this we
know, that God dwells there among men, and that their service surpasses the worship of all other places. For we cannot forget that beauty. - Envoys of the Russian Prince
Vladimir, after experiencing the Divine Liturgy at the Church of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople in the year 987.
1054 The Great Schism occurs. Two major issues include Rome's claim to a universal papal supremacy and her addition of the filioque clause to the Nicene Creed. The
Photian schism (880) further complicated the debate.
1095 The Crusades begun by the Roman Church. The Sack of Constantinople by Rome (1204) adds to the estrangement between East and W est.
1333 St. Gregory Palamas defends the Orthodox practice of hesychast spirituality and the use of the Jesus prayer.
1453 Turks overrun Constantinople; Byzantine Empire ends.
1517 Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses to the door of the Roman Church in Wittenberg, starting the Protestant Reformation. 1529 Church of England begins pulling away
from Rome.
Module 1, Introduction
Module 1, People
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Plato (c.427-347 B.C.) and Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). Why are they
important? Their ideas influenced Christian theology. Read about Plato’s
Allegory of the Cave, Click Here. Read about Aristotle, Click Here.
Xenophon (c.427-355 B.C.) He wrote quotes from Socrates and other
philosophical works. Click Here to read more about him.
Livy (c.59 B.C. – 17 A.D.) Historian. Click Here to read more.
Josephus (c. 37 – 100 A.D.) Jewish Historian who wrote about the early
Church and Jesus’ life. Click Here to read more.
Von Tischendorf and Codex Sinaiticus. The Codex was written between
330–350 A.D. and was a complete version of the New Testament, and parts
of the Old Testament. There were also some additional books. Von
Tischendorf discovered it at the Monastery of St. Catherine at Mt. Sinai in
1859. To read more, Click Here.
Leopold von Ranke (1795 – 1886) German Historian and founder of
Scientific History. Read More.
Historiography – Basic Issues
Historiography is the study of the practice of history. (Taken from Wikipedia) Some of the
common questions of historiography are:
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Who wrote the source (primary or secondary)?
For primary sources, we look at the person in his or her society, for secondary sources, we
consider the theoretical orientation of the approach for example, Marxist or Annales School, ("total
history"), political history, etc.
What is the authenticity, authority, bias/interest, and intelligibility of the source?
What was the view of history when the source was written?
Was history supposed to provide moral lessons?
What or who was the intended audience?
What sources were privileged or ignored in the narrative?
By what method was the evidence compiled?
In what historical context was the work of history itself written?
Issues engaged in so-called critical historiography includes topics such as:
What constitutes an historical "event"?
In what modes does a historian write and produce statements of "truth" and "fact"?
How does the medium (novel, textbook, film, theatre, comic) through which historical information
is conveyed influence its meaning?
What inherent epistemological problems does archive-based history contain?
How does the historian establish their own objectivity or come to terms with their own subjectivity?
What is the relation of historical theory to historical practice?
What is the "goal" of history?
What is history?
Module 1 – More Important Words
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Koine Greek - Koine Greek (Κοινὴ Ἑλληνική) means the Greek
Language used during Jesus Time (c.300 BC – AD 300). The New
Testament was written in Koine Greek.
Roman Kingdom/Republic/Empire – Romans have had almost every type
of government. Read More about the Roman government.
Dead Sea Scrolls – Scripture, hidden in clay jars in caves by the Dead
Sea. They were discovered recently. Read More.
Module 2, Introduction
Module 2 – History and Early Christianity
How can historical study tie us to both the scriptural
witness and to the early church?
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Peter – St. Peter the Apostle. For more information, Click Here.
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Paul – St. Paul the Apostle. For more information, Click Here.
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John – St. John the Apostle. For more information, Click Here.
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Marcion of Sinope (ca. 110-160 A.D.) founder of what would later be called
Marcionism, and one of the first to be strongly denounced by other
Christians
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Justin Martyr (100 – 165 A.D.) Early philosopher that converted to
Christianity and taught the faith powerfully. Click Here for more.
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Didache (70 – 160 A.D.) Early instructions for Christian communities. Read
a summary of the Didache, Click Here.
Module 2 Continued
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House Churches – worshippers meeting in homes, Read more, Click Here.
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Gnostics (2nd and 3rd Century AD) false teaching that emphasized secret
hidden knowledge. Read more, Click Here.
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Jews – early Christians were Jews. Read More.
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Baptismal Creeds – Short creeds that were said at baptism in the early
Church. Later creeds were based upon these short creeds. Read More.
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Emperor Worship – Romans worshipped their emperor, but Christians
didn’t. Romans persecuted Christians. Read More.
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Pantheon – Roman building dedicated to all the gods. Read More.
Module 3, Introduction
Module 3 – Arguments and Theological
Development in the Early Church
What are the roles of orthodoxy and dissent in the
life and ministry of the church?
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Orthodoxy vs. Heterodoxy: Ortho (straight) dox (teaching) versus
Hetero (other) doxy (teaching). Read More.
Origen (ca. 185 – 254 A.D.) Origen formed a theology with some
ideas from Greek philosophy. Read More.
Arius (256-336 A.D.) was an early theologian who taught that the
Son of God was not eternal, but was subordinate to God the Father.
This belief was called Arianism. Read More.
Athanasius (298 – 373 A.D.) Bishop of Alexandria, struggled
against the Arians. Read More.
Jerome (347 – 420 A.D.) Converted to Christianity and translated
the Bible. Read More.
Nestorius , Nestorianism (386 – 451 A.D.) believed that Jesus
existed as two person, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or
Logos, rather than one person. Read More.
Module 3 Continued
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Eutyches – Eutychianism (Monophysitism) believed that after the
union of the two natures, the human and the divine, Christ had only
one nature, that of the incarnate Word, and therefore His human
body was essentially different from other human bodies. Read
More.
Cappadocian Fathers (4th Century A.D.) helped to formulate the
doctrine of the Trinity. Read More.
Filioque – East/West Church Schism: The Latin phrase means
“And the Son” talking about the Holy Spirit proceeding from the Son
also. This caused a split between the eastern church and the
western church. The eastern church would not accept the filioque.
Read More.
Apostles’ Creed: The oldest of the three ecumenical Creeds. Read
More.
Module 4, Introduction
Module 4 – The Church in a Time of Social Upheaval
In what ways has the church functioned through missions
in the spread of salvation, the preserver of higher culture
and a damper on paganism?
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Leo I: (? – 461 A.D.) The pope who met with Attila the Hun.
Read More.
Justinian (483 - 565 A.D.) Roman Emperor. He rewrote the
legal code and lead many conquests including re-conquering
Rome from the Ostrogoths. Read More.
Attila the Hun (405 – 463 A.D.) He reigned over Europe’s
largest Hun empire. Read More.
Theodoric the Ostrogoth (475 – 526 A.D.) Educated by Leo in
Constantinople, became King of the Ostrogoths. Read More.
Boethius: (480 – ca. 524) “Last of the Romans” philosopher and
believed to be a Christian martyr. Read More.
Clovis: (466 – 511) King of the Franks who united the nation.
Read More.
Charles Mantel (688 – 741) “Mayor of the Palace” Read More.
Pepin the Short (714-768) King of Franks, son of Charles
Mantel. Read More.
Module 4 - Continued
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Ireland: Irish history really begins with Saint Patrick, who converted
Ireland to Christianity. Read More.
Charlemagne: (born 742) Holy Roman Emperor, Read More.
Bulgars: group of people who lived north of the Caucus. Read More.
Constantinople: (Now Istanbul) center of the eastern church. Read
More.
Islam is a monotheistic religion based upon the Qur'an, its principal
scripture. Islam's followers, known as Muslims, believe God (Arabic:
Allāh) revealed the Qur'an to Muhammad and that Muhammad is God's
final prophet, Read More.
Vandals: an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire
during the 5th century. Read More.
Lombards: a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that
entered the late Roman Empire. Read More.
Visigoths: western Germanic tribe. First seen in 268 when they invaded
the Roman Empire and swarmed over the Balkan peninsula. Read More.
Ostrogoths: eastern Germanic tribe that influenced political events of
the late Roman Empire. Read More.
Gregory the Great: (ca. 540 – March 12, 604) was Pope from
September 3, 590 until his death. Read More.
Module 5, Introduction
Module 5 – The Church as Supporter of
Society and the State
How has the church helped develop strong Christian states
and supported these states through social ministries and the
preservation of piety?
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Monks – Monasticism – Monastic Orders: Read More.
Benedict of Nursia: Founder of western monasticism.
Developed the “Rule of St. Benedict” that the Benedictine Monks
follow. Read More.
Gregory the Great: Benedict wrote his biography. Read More.
St. Francis of Assisi: (ca. 1181 – 1226) Founder of the
Franciscan Order, Read More.
Alcuin: (735; died 19 May, 804 ) Educator, scholar and
theologian.
Secular Clergy: ministers who do not belong to religious orders
and don’t follow a “Rule”. Priests and deacons are secular
clergy, they work with people. Read More.
Regular Clergy: Clergy that follow a regulum or rule (like the
Rule of St. Benedict) and take religious orders. Monks are
regular clergy. Read More.
Module 5 - Continued
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Those who Prayed/Fought/Worked
Pepin the Short: (714-768) King of Franks, son of
Charles Mantel. Read More.
Charlemagne: Son of Pepin, ruled as emperor and
King of the Franks. Read More. And More
Cathedral Schools: In the middle ages schools run
by the cathedral clergy and used as seminaries to
train priests, Read More.
Holy Roman Empire: a successor state to the
empire founded in 800 by Charlemagne who was
called the Roman emperor in the West. Read More.
Dominic/Dominicans: Dominic founded the
Dominicans, the Order of Preachers. Read More.
Read about Dominic, Click Here.
Module 6, Introduction
Module 6 – Church and State – An Uneasy Alliance
What are the limits of the use and abuse of power in the
church in its role in society and the state?
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Popes and Monarchs: Who had the power, church or state?
It went back and forth between the popes and the kings.
Otto I: Roman emperor and German king, b. in 912; d. at
Memleben, 7 May, 973, Read More.
Creation of Poland (largely by the Pope): 966 A.D. when
prince Mieszko accepted Christianity, Read More.
Thomas Beckett/Henry II – England: Beckett was martyred
by King Henry II. Beckett was the king’s chancellor and rose
to Archbishop of Canterbury. He was assassinated. Read
More.
Investiture: appointments of church officials (Investiture
Controversy – Read More) Kings wanted to invest the clergy,
That caused a controversy and struggle with the church.
Ecclesiastical Courts/ Royal Courts: Church courts versus
king’s courts.
Module 6 - Continued
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Gregory VII: Reformer who played a part in the Investiture Controversy
against Henry IV, Read More
Henry IV: (1050-1106) Holy Roman Emperor: Against Pope Gregory VII in
the Investiture Controversy. Read More
Louis of Bavaria: (1282-1347) The quarrel between John XXII and Louis of
Bavaria concerning the relations of Church and State. Read More.
Pope Innocent III: (1161-1216) Believed kings were subjects of popes.
Powerful pope. Read More.
Emperor Sigismund: (1361-1437) King of Germany and Holy Roman
Emperor. He brought about reform in the Councils of Constance and Basle.
Read More.
Urban II: Started the first crusade ca. 1095 in Clermont Ferrand, France
(Paula stood on the spot where he started the crusade). Read More.
Fourth Lateran Council: (1215) Called by Pope Innocent III. Read More.
Cathedrals (Romanesque and Gothic): Romanesque cathedrals used
arches and vaults. They were heavy, thick stone. Gothic cathedrals were
taller, used flying buttresses to give height. See More.
Module 7, Introduction
Module 7 – Using the Mind to Study God
Is Christianity necessarily always simple, or can one study
God and worship using the potential of the mind?
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Isidore of Seville: (560-636) Archbishop of Seville for more than 30 years
and has the reputation of being one of the great scholars of the early Middle
Ages. All the later medieval history-writing of Spain were based on his
histories. Read More.
Venerable Bede: (ca. 672 – 735) A monk and a scholar. Read More.
John Scotus: (c. 1266 – November 8, 1308) was a theologian, philosopher,
and logician. Read More.
Albert Magnus: Known as Albert the Great; scientist, philosopher, and
theologian, born c. 1206; died at Cologne, 15 November 1280. Read More.
Averröes: (1126-1198) Averroes tried to reconcile Aristotle's system of
thought with Islam. According to him, there is no conflict between religion
and philosophy, rather that they are different ways of reaching the same
truth. He believed in the eternity of the universe. He also held that the soul
is divided into two parts, one individual and one divine; while the individual
soul is not eternal, all humans at the basic level share one and the same
divine soul. Read More.
Anselm of Canterbury: (1033-1109) was the outstanding Christian
philosopher and theologian of the eleventh century. Read More.
Module 7 - Continued
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Peter Abelard: 1079-1142. Abelard was a French philosopher and
theologian. He was a famous teacher and intellectual. Read More.
Thomas Aquinas: (1225-1274) Aquinas worked to create a philosophical
system which integrated Christian doctrine with elements taken from the
philosophy of Aristotle. Read More.
William of Occam: (1285-1349) Theologian and philosopher. Used a
philosophy of simplicity, the simple life. Ockham's razor. The rule, which
said that plurality should not be assumed without necessity (or, in modern
English, keep it simple, stupid) Read More.
Paris University: founded c. 1170 in France. It grew out of the cathedral
schools of Notre-Dame and, with papal support, soon became a great
centre of Christian orthodox teaching. Read More.
Scholasticism: Theology and philosophy that used Aristotle’s teachings.
Read More.
Realism: The belief that reality exists without people watching (observing).
Read More.
Nominalism: Philosophy of William of Ockham (Occam). The belief that
various objects labeled by the same term have nothing in common but their
name. Read More.
Module 8, Introduction
Module 8 – Responding to Disaster, Dissent and Heresy
What guiding principles can we glean from the way the
Christian church has handled both potential and actual
hardship and dissent?
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Famine: Read More.
Bubonic Plague: Almost half of Europe died with the plague. Read
More. And More.
100 Years War: Fighting started in 1393 because the Kings of
England - descendants of William the Conqueror who still spoke
French -wanted to rule France as well. France was weak and
divided and the French king died. Read More.
Babylonian Captivity of Church (Not Luther’s): the Avignon
Papacy
Avignon Papacy: the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven
popes, all French, lived in Avignon. Read More.
Great Schism of Western Church: a split within the Catholic
church in 1378 because of politics, it was ended by the Council of
Constance in 1417. It is occasionally called the Great Schism,
though this term is more often applied to the East-West Schism of
1054. Read More.
Module 8 - Continued
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Wycliffe: In 1382 he translated an English Bible--the first European
translation done in over 1,000 years. Read More.
Hus: (1369-1415) a Czech religious thinker, philosopher, reformer, and
master at Charles University in Prague. His followers became known as
Hussites. The Roman Catholic Church considered his teachings heretical,
and Hus was excommunicated in 1411, condemned by the Council of
Constance, and burned at the stake. Read More.
Sigismund: (1368-1437) Holy Roman Emperor. Read More.
Conciliar Theory: a theory that a general council of the church has greater
authority than the pope and may, if necessary, depose him. Read More.
Peter Waldo/Waldensians: (late 12th Century) followers of Peter Waldo
lived a life of poverty to follow Jesus. Read More.
Albigensians/Cathari: belief that the material world is evil and that humans
must renounce the world to free their spirits, which are good and long for
communion with God. Jesus was seen as an angel whose human suffering
and death were an illusion. Read More.
Spiritual Fransiscans: mendicant (begging) religious order founded by St.
Francis of Assisi in 1209 and dedicated to the virtues of humility and
poverty. It is now divided into three independent branches. Read More.
Beguines/ Beghards: religious associations of women in Europe,
established in the 12th century. Read More.
Module 9, Introduction
Module 9 – Setting the Stage for the Reformation
In what ways were conditions ripe for Reformation in the
latter part of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance?
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Gabriel Biel: (1420-1495) German philosopher, economist, and
Scholastic theologian. Read More.
Thomas À Kempis: German priest and writer of devotional
literature, including The Imitation of Christ (1426). Read More.
The Brothers of the Common Life: a religious Roman Catholic
community founded in the 14th century by Geert Groote. Read
More.
Renaissance Humanism: late 1300’s social movement focusing on
human dignity and potential. Read More.
Francis Petrarch: (1304-1374) Father of Humanism. Read More.
Lorenzo Valla: (c. 1406 - August 1, 1457) was an Italian humanist,
rhetorician, and educator. Read More.
Niccolo Machiavelli: (1469-1527) Important man in the
Renaissance. Most well known for his book, The Prince, where he
describes how a prince can keep control of his kingdom. Read More.
Desiderius Erasmus: (1466 – 1536) Dutch humanist and
theologian who published a new translation of the Greek New
Testament. Read More.
Module 9 - Continued
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Manuel Chrysoloras: (1355-1415) Brought Greek literature to
western Europe. Read More.
Maximillian I: (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy
Roman Emperor. He expanded the influence of the House of
Habsburg through both war and marriage. Read More.
The War of the Roses: a series of civil wars fought in medieval
England from 1455 to 1487 between the House of Lancaster and the
House of York. Read More.
Henry VII: (1457 – 1509) Son of Edmund Tutor who became King of
England and founded the Tudor dynasty. Read More.
Fractured Germany: Read about the history of Germany and the
Hussite Wars, Click Here.
The Golden Bull: named the seven Kurfürsten or prince-electors
who were to choose the King of the Romans, who would then
usually be crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope later. Read
More.
Module 9 - Continued
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Electoral Saxony: in 1356 the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV issued the
Golden Bull, the fundamental law of the empire which settled the method of
electing the emperor, the Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg was made one of the
seven electorates and promoted to become the Electorate of Saxony. Read
More.
Papal Catholic – Italy: The states where the pope was the ruler. Read
More.
Savonarola: Italian Dominican priest and leader of Florence from 1494 until
his execution in 1498. Read More.
Geiler Von Kaisersberg: (March 16, 1445 – March 10, 1510), Swiss-born
preacher, considered one of the greatest of the popular preachers of the
15th century. Read More.
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain (Exploration and Reconquista): Sent
many explorers and conquerors to the new world (including Columbus).
Read More.
Unified Catholic Spain: Those who were other religions were given the
choice of exile or conversion. Read More.
French Monarchy: In France, success (under Joan of Arc) getting rid of the
English gave French people pride. This played into the hands of French
kings Louis XI (1461-1483) and Charles VIII (1483-1498), who strengthened
royal power greatly. More about the Renaissance – Good site.
English Parliament: Read the history of the English Parliament, Click
Here.
The Councils
Open the file: EcumenicalCouncils.pdf to
see the full list of church councils and their
dates and what they decided. If you click
on the links, you will go to a website and
can read more.