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Understanding Computers & Computer Literacy Computer Concepts BASICS Lesson 1 Introducing Computers Computers are most important invention of this past century! Where do we use computers? School & learning Video games TV, movies (instant replays & special effects!) IM, E-mail, Video-conferencing History of the Computer 1st Computers: invented in 1940s & 1950s Great big machines (as big as small buildings and cost millions of $$$) Names: UNIVAC, ENIAC Power: less power than your typical pocket calculator Up through early 1970s, only government & corporations used these computers 1971: 1st Microprocessor Steve Job & Steve Wozniak applied this technology to personal computers 1976: 1st Apple computer (developed by both Steves) 1981: Bill Gates introduced IBM PC What are a Computer and Computer System? Computer: an electronic device that Receives data (input) Process data Stores data Produces a result (output) Computer System: includes Hardware, Software, Data, & People Hardware: the actual machine, wires, transistors, circuits, monitors, & printers Software: instructions or programs used for controlling the computer Data: text, numbers, sound, images, video Information: Process of data going into computer (input), is processed, stored data, and output produced. Users: People who use computers Examples of a Computer System Input (receives data): Customer name is entered into computer, scans ISBN, types info, uses scanner Process: Computer uses stored instructions to process data into information Outputs Information: a monitor or printer displays information Stores data: data & information are stored on a disk drive or other storage device John Smith 2358 Smithville Rd. •Movie 1 •Movie 2 A computer is not overly complicated. It only performs 2 operations: Arithmetic: add, subtract, multiply, divide and comparisons Logical: And, Or, Not Did You Know? A computer won a World Chess Championship playing against a human being Are Computers Intelligent? No. They can only do what we ask them to do. Are there any advantages to using a computer? – Yes! Speed: can perform billions of calculations per second Reliability: electronic components are dependable Accuracy: IF data is entered correctly, computers generate error-free results Storage: can store/retrieve volumes of data/information Communications: can communicate & share resources with other computers Classifying Computers Computers are either Special Purpose or General Purpose computers. Special Purpose: used to control something else. Tiny chips are embedded in devices such as: dishwashers, airport radar system, bathroom scale General Purpose: divided into 5 categories based upon size, function, cost, performance General Purpose Computers Desktop Computer: designed so all components fit on/under desk. PC & Apple (Mac) are most popular Mobile Computer: personal computers such as notebooks (laptops). Designed to be carried from one place to another. Mobile devices: fit into the palm of your hand (PDA, hand-helds, smart-phones) Mid-range server: (minicomputer) used by small companies that can support hundreds of users Mainframe computer: large & expensive computer that can support hundreds/thousands of users Supercomputer: fastest type of computer. Used by government & large corporations to process enormous amounts of data Computer Software 2 types of software (programs): Application software: a set of programs that perform tasks for users Word processing, spreadsheets, databases System software: a set of programs that controls the operations of the computer Windows or Mac system software Graphical User Interface (GUI): what we see when we start up Windows. Includes icons Icon: small image that represents file, command, or other function Communications & Networks Electronic Communication: technology that allows computers to communicate with each other & other devices Transmission of text, numbers, voice, video 1969: 1st message sent via telephone from computer Electronic communication requires: Sender: computer that is sending message Receiver: computer receiving message Channel: media that carries/transports message (phone wire, coaxial cable, microwave signal, fiber-optic cable) Protocol: the rules that govern the transfer of data Networks Networks: a group of two or more computer systems linked together via communication devices Allows computers to “share” printers, data, information, & programs Nodes (Clients): computers on a network Servers: computers that allocate resources on a network Intranet & Extranet Many companies have intranets in their organizations Intranet: a network put together for just certain people (company, school, etc.) Reliable network, Secure network, no outsiders can use Extranet: systems that allow outside organizations to access company’s internal information The Internet Internet: world’s largest network. Originally a network that included only the government & universities 1990: Original network (called ARPANET) was disbanded & the Internet was born Technology & Everyday Life Computers have affected the way we live our lives. They have become a necessary tool in almost every activity & type of business. How does it affect you? School, security, gaming, research, home appliances, TV, etc. Computers in our Future The future is hard to predict, but we can assume that computers will be more powerful and less expensive. Almost every type of job will somehow involve a computer Connectivity will continue to evolve. What is the computer of the future?