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第三讲 物流信息技术
物5 Protective
流 管 Packaging
理 学 And
Chapter
Materials Handling
Logistics Information Technology
第5章 保护性包装和物料搬运
主讲教师:张余华教授
广东外语外贸大学《物流学》讲义
CONTENTS OF CHAPTER 5
 Section 1 Product Characteristics
 Section 2 Packaging
 Section 3 Unit Loads in Materials Handling
 Section 4 Beyond the Unit Load
 Section 5 Materials Handling
 Summary
 Key Terms
 Questions for Discussion and Review
Learning Objectives
1. To know how product features affect packaging and materials
handling
2. To identify the functions performed by protective packaging
3. To analyze the utilization of unit loads in materials handling
4. To appreciate how the environmental protection movement
has affected packaging and package choice
5. To learn materials handling principles
This chapter concerns on packaging
and materials handling
Each product has unique physical properties
Determines how and when the product
is packaged
Packaging attributes strongly influence materials
handling concerns
Section 1
Product Characteristics
Product Characteristics
 Product characteristics can
influence packaging and
materials handling
considerations physical
characteristics
 Substances exist in three forms
– solid, liquid, gas – and each
form has specific packaging
requirements.
 The product’s ability to with
stand the elements.
 Product density.
 产品的不同特征会影响
到对产品包装和搬运的
选择。其中之一是产品
的物理特征。
1)物质存在三种形态:固
态、液态、气态,每种形态
都有特殊的包装要求;
2)物质对外界环境的承受
能力;
3)产品的密度。
Product Characteristics
 The physical characteristics of
some goods change while
they are moving in the
logistics channel.
 Fresh fruits and vegetables –
respiration, harvest before
ripe.
 Perishables, such as meats,
fish, yeast and fresh produce
require special packaging,
loading, storage, and
monitoring.
 在物流渠道的移动过程中,一些产品
的物流特性会发生改变。
 (1)例如新鲜的水果和蔬菜。它们采
摘以后仍然会呼吸,释放出气体和水
分并产生热量。通常会在成熟之前采
摘以保证到达零售店时正好成熟。
 (2)鱼、肉、酵母、新鲜农产品等易
腐品需要特殊的包装、装卸、储存和
监控。(如大闸蟹)
 (3)化学性质。快熟和慢熟的水果不
能放在一起。如苹果和熟水果放在一
起的话会让其他水果加快烂的速度。
Product Characteristics
 Chemical Characteristics
 产品的某些化学性质也
 Incompatible products
会影响包装和搬运方式
 Characteristics must be
的选择。有些产品是互
made known to consumers
不相容的。
 必须让顾客了解产品的
不同特性,以帮助他们
作出正确的购买决定并
正确地保存和使用产品。
8
Hazardous Cargo
 Explosives 爆炸品
 Compressed gases 压缩气体
 Flammable liquids 可燃液体
 Oxidizers 氧化剂
 Poisons 毒药
 Radioactive materials放射性物质
 Corrosive materials腐蚀性物质
Section 2
Packaging
Packaging
 Building-blocks concept
 Smallest unit is consumer package
 Each unit is stocked within the next larger one to protect the
product
Is it useful
for buildingblocking?
Packaging
 Packaging which refers to materials used for the
containment, protection, handling, delivery, and
presentation of goods.
 Three general functions:
 To Promote
 To protect
 To identify (label)
Packaging
 Promotional functions of Packaging
 For many products customers can examine only the
printing and pictures on closed cartons before making their
choices.
 It would be appropriate to display some advertising on the
outside of the box.
Packaging
 Protective functions of packaging
 Enclose materials
 Restrain materials from undesired movement
 Separate contents to prevent undesired contact
 Cushion contents from outside vibrations and shocks
 Support the weight of identical containers stacked above
 Position the contents to provide maximum protection
 Provide for uniform weight distribution
 Provide exterior surface for labeling
 Be tamperproof
 Be safe for consumers or others
Figure5-2 : Checklist for Box Users
Figure5-3 : Boxmaker’s Certificate (BMC)
Packaging
 The carriers established different classifications for two
main reasons:
 Packaging specifications determined by product density
encourage shippers to tender loads in densities (同时兼
顾体积和重量)
 Carriers specifications for protective packaging reduce the
likelihood of damage to products while they are being
carried (如:邮局对包裹包装要求)
Packaging
 It is difficult to know exactly how much carrier tariffs
and classifications control shippers’ packaging.
Packaging
 Labeling
 Usually done at the end of the assembly line.
 Avoids accumulating an inventory of preprinted packages.
 When the material is placed into the box, it becomes necessary
to label the box.
 Bar codes are widely used in labeling.
 Not all labels are visible to the naked eye, like RFID labels.
 Many regulations govern the labeling of packaging, including
the labeling of weight, specific contents and instructions for use.
 Labeling regulations differ from country to country.
Packaging
 Labeling Contents
 Batch numbers 批号
 Weight
 Specific contents
 标签内容包括:生产批
号、重量、内含物、使
用说明、通关信息、条
 Instructions for use
形码、智能标签或RFID
 Information to allow passage
标签等内容。
through customs
 One- or two-dimensional bar
codes
 Smart labels or RFID labels
Figure5-5 : Examples of Shipping Labels
 Figure5-6 : A Handheld Laser Scanner Scanning Labels on a
Pallet Load of Product Sitting in a Warehouse Rack
Packaging
 Package testing and Monitoring
 Vibrations 震动
 Dropping 坠落
 Horizontal impacts 水平冲击
 Compression 挤压
 Overexposure to extreme temperatures or moisture 过度
暴露在极端温度或湿度下
 Rough handling 野蛮搬运
 Figure5-10: Results of Compression Test
Packaging
 A package system requires 3 types of information to design
 Severity of the distribution environment
 Fragility of the product
 Performance characteristics of various cushion materials
Packaging
 Environmental Protection
 Reduce packing materials used
 Use packaging materials that are more environmentally
friendly with recycled content
 Use reusable containers
 Retain or support services that collect used packaging and
recycle it
 Metric System
Section 3
Unit Loads in Materials Handling
Unit Loads in Materials Handling
 Provide efficient yet manageable units
 Basic unit is a pallet or skid
 A unit load is one or more boxes secured to a pallet or skid so
that boxes can be handled by mechanical means
 Unitization describes this type of handling
Unit Loads in Materials Handling
 Advantages
 Additional protection
 Pilferage is discouraged
 More fragile items can be stacked inside the load
 Mechanical devices can be substituted for manual labor
Unit Loads in Materials Handling
 Disadvantages
 Provides large quantity that sometimes is of limited value
to resellers dealing in smaller quantities
 Must use mechanical or automated device to move, which
cost money to purchase or lease
 Lack of standardization in terms of pallet sizes
Figure 5-12: A Battery Powered Lift Truck Used for Stock Picking
Unit Loads in Materials Handling
 The unit load platform
 Pallet is the basic unit in unit loading
 Wooden pallets compared to plastic pallets and steel pallets:
 Inexpensive
 Less longevity
 Easy to break and splinter
 Heavier
 Flammable
Unit Loads in Materials Handling
 Slip sheet can be used in place of pallet
 Saves vertical room
 Requires more care when moving
Section 4
Beyond the unit load
Beyond the unit load
 Slight clearances must be maintained between pallets to
allow for the loading and unloading processes.
 Bracing or inflatable dunnage bags are used to fill narrow
empty spaces
 Full Weight capacity——weighing out
 Full Cubic capacity——cube out
Section 5
Material Handling
Material Handling
 Materials handling deals
 集装箱是一种统一规格
with the short-distance
的、可重复使用的存储、
movement of the material
装运货物的箱子。
between two or more
points.
 Container: a uniform,
sealed reusable metal box
in which goods are shipped.
Material Handling
 An intermodal container holds the unit
 load
 Interchangeable among rail, truck, and water carriers
 Air carriers usually use irregular shaped containers made
to fit fuselage
广东外语外贸大学《物流学》
2017/5/23
Material Handling
 ULDs (Unit Load Devices 集装器是一个装载在飞机上,装
着包裹和货物的大箱体)
 Bulk materials 散装物资
 Bulk cargoes
 Density 密度
 Angle of repose 休止角
 Bulk liquids
 Resistance to flow 抗流动性
 The handling process itself may change the characteristics
Materials Handling Principles
1 the planning principle
2 the standardization principle
3 the work principle
4 the ergonomic principle
5 the unit load principle
6 the space utilization principle
7 the environmental principle
8 the automation principle
9 the life cycle cost principle
10 the system principle
Figure 5-15: VariousTypes of Intermodal SurfaceContainers
Materials handling equipment
 Two categories: storage
 物料搬运设备共可以分
equipment and handling
为两类:储存设备和搬
equipment
运设备。
Materials handling equipment
Materials handling equipment
storage
equipment
Shelves
Racks
Bins
handling equipment
Conveyor
systems
Lift trucks
Carts
Cranes
Materials handling equipment
 Picker-to-part systems
 An order picker goes to where a product is located, such
as with a forklift.
 Part-to-picker systems
 The pick locations brought to the picker, such as with
carousels.
Summary
 Many considerations must be taken into account as one
chooses packaging, such as product’s physical characteristics.
 Packages have multiple functions
 Material handling refers to the short-distance movements
 A series of materials handling principles
Key Terms
 Building-blocks concept 组块概念
 Closed-loop systems 闭环系统
 Container 集装箱
 Cube out 容量满载
 Ergonomics 人类工效学
 Materials handling 物料搬运
 Package testing
 Packaging 包装
 Pallet (skid) 托盘(平台)
Key Terms
 Part-to-picker system储位至拣货者系统
 picker-to-park system拣货者至储位系统
 Shrink-wrap 伸缩包装
 Slip sheet 滑板
 Unitization 单元化
 Unit loads 单位装载
 Unit load devices 单位装载设备
 Weighing out 重量满载
Questions for Discussion and Review
 1. How do product characteristics influence packaging and
materials handling considerations?
 2. What is the building-blocks concept? How is it applied to
the handling of packaged goods?
 3. The chapter describes approximately 10 functions that a
protective package should accomplish. Does every package
have to accomplish every function? Explain.
 4. Discuss the role of labeling in logistics management.
Questions for Discussion and Review
 5. What information is needed to design a protective package
properly?
 6. What are some potential advantages to the unit load?
 7. What trade-offs exist between wood, plastic, and steel
pallets?
 8. Discuss the various handling characteristics associated with
bulk cargoes.
 9. Describe two material handling principles. Which of the
two do you believe is more important? Why?
第三讲 物流信息技术
物 for
流Your
管 Cooperation
理 学
Thanks
Logistics Information Technology
主讲教师:张余华教授