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Foreign Invaders of the
Middle East
Imperial Map
Foreign Invaders
• By the year 900 CE the great Arab
empire created after Muhammad’s death
was broken and fractured.
• These kingdoms continued to develop as
centers of Islamic civilization.
• Beginning around 1000 CE waves of
nomads began to overrun the Middle
East in search of good, fertile land.
Objective: to identify the changes that foreign invaders brought to the Middle East
Procedure: Using textbook pages 575-578 create a WEB.
Central Idea: Foreign Invaders of the Middle East (1000-1300)
(be sure to include addition details along with effects)
Foreign Invaders
of the
Middle East
Closure: Describe changes
brought by each group.
Challenges to Islam
The Seljuk Turks
 Seljuk was the chieftain of a group of
Turkish tribes
 These tribes were originally from the
steppes of central Asia – Turkish Speaking
 In the late 10th century, they migrated into
modern day Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq,
and converted to Islam
 Converted to Islam before the invasion
 In 1055, the Seljuk Turks, under their leader
Mas’ud, conquer Baghdad, and establish control
over the Abbasid Dynasty
 Caliph remained as a figure head
 Captured Anatolia Plateau (Turkey) from
Byzantine Empire
 At the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, they deal a
serious blow to the Byzantine Empire
 ½ of the old Roman Empire
 conquered by Mongols in 1244
Long –Term Effects of Seljuks
 Weakened Byzantine Empire
 Frightened Christian rulers of Europe
The Mongols
 The Mongols were from central
 Under their great leader Genghis
Khan, they would eventually
control the largest continuous
empire in history
The Mongols
Extent of Mongol Empire
The Mongols
 Were very
 Left a path of
death and
destruction in
their wake
The Mongols
 "The Advantage of Bow and Horse"
 The Mongols prized their horses primarily for the
advantages they offered in warfare.
 developed a composite bow made out of sinew and horn
and were skilled at shooting it while riding, which gave
them the upper hand against ordinary foot soldiers.
 With a range of more than 350 yards, the bow was
superior to the contemporaneous English longbow,
whose range was only 250 yards.
 A wood-and-leather saddle, which was rubbed with
sheep's fat to prevent cracking and shrinkage, allowed
the horses to bear the weight of their riders for long
periods and also permitted the riders to retain a firm
 Horse riding people of Central Asia
 Looted, destroyed & killed millions over
100 year period
 Killed last Abbasid Caliph
 Genghis is alleged to have said:
"The greatest joy a man can know is to conquer his enemies and
drive them before him. To ride their horses and take away their
possessions. To see the faces of those who were dear to them
in tears, and to clasp their wives and daughters in his arms"
 Hulagu
 Grandson of Genghis Kahn
 Captured Baghdad from Seljuks
Mongol Horsemen
 In 1258, Hulagu, a grandson of the great
Genghis Khan, led a huge Mongol army to
invade the Abbasid Empire.
 The caliph of Baghdad believed that his
forces could withstand a siege.
 He was wrong…
Painting of Hulagu Khan by Rashid-al-Din
Hamadani, early 14th century.
Mongol Horsemen
 The city of Baghdad fell to the Mongols,
and was destroyed
80,000 people were put to the sword
The Caliph was wrapped in carpet and
ridden over by hundreds of horses
Mongols Video
Sack of Baghdad Video
Long-Term Effects of Mongols
 Mongols Crash Course
 Reminder to Self – Mongols also in South Asia
 Absorbed into cultures of Middle East
 Linked trade to China, India and Middle East
 Controlled trade routes
The Crusaders
Roots of Crusades 3:15 good
First Crusades
Discovery Channel DVD Crusades
 The Byzantines pressured all of Christendom to
strike back against the Seljuk Turks
 Motives:
 reunify the Church & increase power of Roman
Catholic Church
 1st Crusades: Pope Urban II
Military expeditions
Goal to capture Palestine
took Jerusalem 1099 Fall of Video
Helped Byzantine recover Anatolia
Christian Kingdom stretches to the Mediterranean
Coast - Origins of the Knights Templar Video
 Saladin drove Crusaders from Jerusalem 1187
 Saladin History Channel Video
10:48 Saladin
• Salah-al-Din, or Saladin,
united the Muslim world in
the late 1100s CE.
Saladin was God-fearing,
courteous, and generous to
friends and enemies.
He united Muslims from
Syria and Egypt,
surrounded the crusader
kingdoms, and forced the
crusaders to retreat.
He eventually recaptured
the city of Jerusalem from
the crusaders in 1187 CE.
Origins of the Knights
Templar Video
Effects of the Crusades
 Crusader Kingdoms in Middle East lasted less
than 200 years
Increased trade across the Mediterranean Sea
All land recaptured by Muslims
Limited change to Middle East – Effects Video 3:00
Effects in Europe – wealth, trade. Knowledge
from ME
 New products: silk, spice, sugar
 Advances in technology: paper, compass
 Quickened change in Europe
 Changes brought by each group:
 Seljuks
 Weakened Byzantine empire
 Mongols
 Strengthen trade between Asia, India and Middle
 Crusaders
 Increased European interest in Asia
 Increased knowledge/trade/new products from ME