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Hyoid Bone
• Also called hyoid
_____________
• Supports base of tongue, the
pharynx, and the larynx and
assists in swallowing.
• Composed of several parts that
are united by cartilage.
• Vertebrae that extend from skull to tip of tail.
• Divided into 5 sections:
–
–
–
–
–
Cervical (neck, C)
Thoracic (chest, T)
Lumbar (abdomen, L)
Sacral (pelvis, S)
Coccygeal (tail, Cy)
• Refer to vertebrae by letter designation and number designation.
Spinal Column
(aka vertebral column)
• Body
– The main, ventral portion of
the bone.
– Separated from other
vertebrae by intervertebral
________ of _________
cartilage.
• Arch
– dorsal to body
– helps to make up _______
________ which allows
passage of the spinal
cord.
VERTEBRAE CHARACTERISTICS
VERTEBRAE CHARACTERISTICS
• Transverse Processes
– Two processes that project
laterally
– Site of muscle attachment.
• Articular Processes
– On cranial and caudal ends
of vertebrae, form
intervertebral joint
• Spinous Processes
– Single and projects
dorsally
Cervical Vertebrae
• Neck region
• ______ vertebrae in all domestic
animals
• _________ is C1
– Holds up head.
– Has ________ that can be palpated
– Has no vertebral body, just is a ring
which spinal cord passes through.
• ________ is C2
– Has large blade-like spinous
process and a ______ that fits into
atlas
Thoracic Vertebrae
• Chest region
• Have tall __________ processes.
• Number of vertebrae = number
pairs of _______
• Have articular facets which
communicate with the ribs.
• Dorsal to abdominal region.
• Most massive-looking bones in
spinal column.
• Bodies are large and bulky
• Prominent cranial-directed
___________ processes
Sacral Vertebrae
• 3 - 5 vertebrae fused together to
form one single, solid structure.
• Called the _________.
• Joins pelvis via sacroiliac joint.



Bones of the tail.
Cranial vertebrae have
arches, bodies and
processes, caudal vertebrae
are rods of bone
In humans fuse into coccyx.
• Flat bones that form the lateral
walls of the thorax.
• Usually the number of ribs is
equal to the number of thoracic
vertebrae.
• Dorsal ends form moveable joints
which is allows lungs to expand.
• Term for rib is ____________.
• ____________ ribs aka “true ribs”
attach to sternum
• ____________ ribs aka “false
ribs”make up caudal part of
thorax.
• Unattached ribs are called
____________ ribs.
Ribs




Breastbone
Made up of sternebrae.
Most cranial sternebrae is _________________
Most caudal sternebrae is called
_____________ process.
STERNUM
Appendicular Skeleton
• Bones of limbs.
– Thoracic limbs (front leg)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Scapula
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Carpal bones
Metacarpal bones
Phalanges
– Pelvic Limbs (back leg)
• Pelvis
•
•
•
•
•
•
– Ilium
– Ischium
– pubis
Femur
Tibia
Fibula
Tarsal bones
Metatarsal bones
Phalanges
Appendicular Skeleton
(limb bones)
Thoracic Limb
•
•
•
•
•
•
Scapula
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Carpal bones (carpus)
Metacarpal bones
• Phalanges
• Most proximal bone of the thoracic limb.
• Flat and triangular.
• Has prominent ridge on lateral surface referred to as the
_____________.
• The distal end forms portion of ball and socket shoulder joint called
the ______________ cavity.
Scapula
• Long bone of upper arm/brachium
• Articulates with the _________ proximally and
the _______ and _______ distally
• Has head at proximal end with a large greater
tubercle for muscle attachment.
• Condyle at distal end is composed of trochlea
(medial/ulna), capitulum (lateral, radius), medial
and lateral epicondyles (medial and lateral/ no
articulations)
• _____________ fossa is proximal to the condyles
on the caudal surface of the humerus
Humerus
• Is not the “funny bone”
• One of two bones that form the antebrachium.
• Proximally, forms major portion of elbow joint with distal end of the
____________.
• Articulates distally with the ________ (except in the horse).
• Point of the elbow = olecranon process
• Trochlear _________: concave articular surface that makes elbow secure.
– Proximal end of trochlear notch forms a beak-shaped ______________ process.
• tucks into the olecranon process of the humerus
– Distal end of trochlear notch forms the two ________________ processes.
• Styloid process forms the distal end of the ulna.
Radius
• Main weight bearing bone of the antebrachium.
• Articulates with _________ and ulna proximally, and the
_______ distally.
– ___________process articulates with carpus.
Carpal Bones
• Carpus has _______ rows of bones.
• Is the “_______” of the most animals, knee
of horses
• Proximal row bones have names
– radial carpal bone, intermediate carpal (if
present) ulnar carpal bone, accessory carpal
bone
• Distal row bones numbered medial to
lateral:
– (1st carpal, 2nd carpal, etc)
• Articulate proximally with the carpal
bones and distally with the phalanges of
the digits.
• Numbered from _________ to
_________ (dewclaw being number 1 in
dogs and cats).
• Horses have one large metacarpal III
bone (__________ bone) and two nonweight bearing metacarpal II & IV bones
(___________ bones).
• Cattle have fused metacarpal bones (III
& IV) with a groove dividing them
Metacarpal
Bones
EQUINE
Phalanges (singular =
phalanx)
• Each digit is made up of two or
three______________ (proximal,
middle, distal)
• In horses phalanges are also called the
long and short pastern bones and coffin
bone.
• Horses and cattle have proximal and
distal sesamoid bones.
– Distal sesamoid in horse = navicular
bone
• Horses have one weight-bearing digit (III)
and cattle have two (III & IV)
• Dogs and cats have an _____________
crest that surrounds the claw.
EQUINE PHALANGES
LONG PASTERN
SHORT PASTERN
COFFIN BONE