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Describe a time in your life when you
were really sick.
Do you know if you had a virus or a
bacterial infection (maybe it was
something else!)
What were the symptoms and how
was it treated?
The Difference in Size
• Bacteria can be measured in micrometers
– 0.000001m or 10-6
• Viruses are measured in nanometers
– 0.000000001m or 10-9
The Difference in Definition
• Bacteria: Prokaryotic
Prokaryo Organisms
– Pro: Primitive or “prior to”
– Karyon: Nucleus or “kernel”
– Single-celled organisms
• Viruses: Submicroscopic,
Submicroscopic parasitic,
acellular entity composed of a nucleic acid
core surrounded by a protein coat.
– Below the resolution of a microscope
– Relies on a host
– Does not have the properties of cellular life
Two main “domains”
1. Archaea
Cell walls lack peptidoglycan
up of types
of peptide
and sugar bonds
to extreme
Extremely hot and cold, salty, without oxygen,
2. Bacteria
Cell walls with peptidoglycan
• Three basic shapes:
– Rod (Bacilli)
Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax),
Yersinia pestis (Bubonic plague)
• Comma-shaped (Vibrios)
Vibrio cholerae
– Sphere (Cocci)
Streptococcus, Staphylococcus
– Spiral (Spirilla)
Treponema pallidum (Syphillis)
Bacterial Staining
• Gram-positive: Retains the crystals of
violet dye in the peptidoglycan layer
Bacterial Staining
• Gram-negative: Will not pick up the violet dye
Bacterial Growth and Reproduction
• Binary Fission:
Asexual division
• Conjugation:
“Sexual” reproduction
Pilus extends between bacteria
• Spore Formation:
An endospore forms when growth
conditions are unfavorable