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Microbiology Agustin Krisna Wardani What is microbiology? Study of microscopic (living ) things microorganism The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1990 Size of microbes Bacteria : 1.0 – 0.5 x 1.0 – 10 mm Fungi : 8.0 – 15 x 4.0 – 8 mm Alga : 28 – 32 x 8.0 – 12 mm Protozoa: 0.01 – 0.5 mm Virus : 0.015 – 0.3 mm (Human eye) can see 0.1 mm (1 x 10-3 m) Tools of Microbiology Light Microscope - live specimens - 1,000 x mag. or less Electron Microscope - non-living specimens - > 1,000 x mag. Microscope Light microscope Electron microscope Techniques of Microbiology Staining – to better see structures Microbial Culture - growing the microbe Container for microbe culture - usually Petri dish Culture media - Food for the microbes - E.g. Agar – (from red algae) - Others such as nutrient broths Staining Solid media Liquid media Scope of Microbiology Environmental Microbiology Industrial Microbiology Agricultural Microbiology Medical Microbiology Food Microbiology What is the importance of studying microbiology? Benefits Genetic engineering Synthesis of chemical products Recycling sewage Bioremediation: use microbes to remove toxins (oil spills) Use of microbes to control crop pests Manufacture of food and drink Harmful effects Cause disease (basis for bioterrorism) Food spoilage Food poisoning Staphylococcus aureus Flu virus HIV Listeria Yersinia History of Microbiology 1590 – First compound light microscope Zacharias Janssen 1674 –Van Leeuwenhoek discover microorganism 1796 – First vaccine (smallpox) Edward Jenner 1859 – disproved theory of Spontaneous generation Pure culture technique Louis Pasteur 1867 Antiseptic Surgery/techniques Joseph Lister 1876 – specific m.o cause specific diseases Pure culture technique Robert Koch 1885 - Vaccine against Rabie Louis Pasteur 1929 Discovery of Penicillin (first antibiotic) Alexander Fleming 1938 – First Electron Microscope The electron microscope is capable of magnifying biological specimens up to one million times. These computer enhanced images of 1. smallpox, 2. herpes simplex, and 3. mumps are magnified, respectively, 150,000, 150,000 and 90,000 times. History 1953 Structure of DNA Revealed Watson & Crick 1954 Polio Vaccine Jonas Salk Microbiology today Immunology clinical application of immune reaction, diagnose disease. Virology phage therapy Genetic engineering/ Recombinant DNA Tech. improvement of microorganism References: Introduction of Microbiology, Third Edition. 2004. John L. Ingraham, Catherine A. Ingraham. Principles of Modern Microbiology. 2008. Mark Wheelis.