* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Document related concepts
Chair of Medical Biology, Microbiology, Virology, and Immunology THE HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY. Lecturer As. Prof. O. Pokryshko Why Study Microbiology? Pharmaceuticals Vaccines/Antibiotics Biotechnology Bioremediation Pathogenicity Fundamental Biology Microbiology The study of microorganisms Microorganisms living things too small to be seen with the unaided eye Microorganisms = Microbes Microorganisms Divided into six groups Bacteria Archae Algae Fungi Protozoa Viruses History of Microbiology Microbes discovered >300yrs Known to man during the mid 1800s Period of progress began & continues to the present Periods of microbiology development Morphologic Physiologic Prophylactic Morphological period in microbiology history (XVII middle of age). It is also called micrographycal period, as the study of microorganism came only to description of their dimensions and forms. Biological properties and their significances for man still a long time remained incomprehensible. Experimental phase Leeuwenhoek Pasteur Koch Lister Before 17th century, study of microbiology was hampered by the lack of appropriate tools to observe microbes. Robert Hooke: In 1665 built a compound light microscope and used it to observe thin slices of cork. Coined the word cell. Anton van Leeuwenhoeck: In 1673 was the first person to observe live microorganisms which he called “animalcules” (bacteria, protozoa), using single-lens microscopes that he designed. He observed 50,000 different specimens, reported findings to the Royal Society of London Jenner ( 1796) Smallpox immunity / Vaccine Edward Pasteur’s Contributions: Pasteurization: Developed a process in which liquids are heated (at 65oC) to kill most bacteria responsible for spoilage. Disease Causes: Identified three different microbes that caused silkworm diseases. Vaccine: Developed a vaccine for rabies from dried spinal cords of infected rabbits. Directed Pasteur Institute until his death in 1895. French Chemist Pasteur (1861) Joseph Lister (1859): Used disinfectant to treat surgical wounds, greatly reducing infection rates. Considered the father of antiseptic surgery. Robert Koch (1876): First person proved that microorganisms caused diseases Only specific microorganisms caused specific diseases Studied anthrax affects cattle & humans Proved that Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax in cattle. Later identified bacterium that causes tuberculosis. Study of viruses Iwanoski (1892) studying diseases of tobacco plants Discovered TMV Filterable viruses Prophylactic period After 1914 Classic Metchnikov's researches defined a prophylactic period in microbiology history. The Patriarch of world and Ukrainian microbiology - I. Metchnikov Paul Ehrlich (1910): Search for “magic bullet”. Discovered salvarsan, an arsenic derivative, was effective against syphilis. (1st synthetic drug to come in to widespread use) Alexander Fleming (1928): Discovered that penicillin produced by the mold Penicillium notatum was able to prevent microbial growth. Penicillin came into use 10 yrs later -By the 1940s known as the “wonder drug” Rene Dubos (1939): Discovered two antibiotics (gramidin and tyrocidine) produced by bacterium (Bacillus brevis).