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Golden Age of Muslim Civilization Ch.10 Sect. 3 Islam Society and Economy • Cultures include Arab, Persian, Egyptian, African, European, Mongol, Turks, Indians, and SE Asian • Muslim society absorbed and blended many cultures Social Classes • • • • Enjoy social mobility Religious, scholarly, or military achievements Slavery common from conquered people Muslims couldn’t be slaves and converts didn’t earn freedom right away but children did. • Islamic law encouraged freeing of slaves International Trade Network • Merchants honored in Muslim world • 750-1350 they built a vast trade network that spread Islam as well • Camel caravans were the “ships of the desert” • Traveled Silk Road and monsoon winds took them to India as well • Set up partnerships, bought and sold on credit, formed banks to change currency • Developed first checks, Arabic word sakk • Branches in all major cities Manufacturing • Organized by guilds • Authority to regulate prices, weights and measures, methods of production, and quality of product being produced • Work done by wage workers Agriculture • Produced sugar cane, cotton, dyes, medicinal herbs, fruits, vegetables, and flowers • Desert everywhere so scarcity of water • Massive irrigation projects and drained swamplands between Tigris and Euphrates Art and Literature • Scholars studied Quran and produced own works interpreting its meaning Design • Quran banned worship of idols or portraying God or human figures • Walls and ceilings decorated with abstract and geometric patterns called arabesque Architecture • Used domes of Byzantine buildings • Domed mosques and high minarets dominated Muslim cities Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem Poetry • Passed down orally • Important themes were chivalry and romance of nomadic life • Influenced medieval European literature and music • Firdawsi (fihr dow see)- masterpiece Shah Namah or Book of Kings tells story of history of Persia • Omar Khayyam (ki yahm)- scholar and astronomer wrote The Rubaiyaat (Roo bi yaht) Tales • Art of story telling • The Thousand and One Nights • Many of these stories set in Baghdad of Huran al-Rashid • Aladdin and His Magic Lamp • Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves Arab scholars made many mathematical advances. Arab mathematicians developed what became our modern number system. The study of algebra was pioneered by al-Khwarizmi in the 800s. Building on the work of the Greeks, Muslims greatly advanced medicine and public health. • Physicians and pharmacists had to pass tests. • There were hospitals and physicians who traveled to rural areas. • Pharmacists mixed bitter-tasting medicines with sweet-tasting syrups and gums for the first time. Muslim physicians made great advances in medicine. Muhammad al-Razi studied measles and smallpox. He also stressed the need to treat the mind as well as the body. Ibn Sina compiled a huge encyclopedia of all known medical knowledge called the Canon on Medicine. Arabic physicians could even perform cataract surgery using hollow needles.