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AP European
Review Session
Isms, esp. Nationalism and
• Isms
– political: liberalism, conservatism, socialism
– art: neo-Classicism, Romanticism, Realism,
Impressionism, etc.
• Nationalism
– Isms in Practice
– Italian unification
– German unification
• Imperialism
– causes
– locations
– end of colonialism in the 20th century
the Key Questions
• what are the major artistic movements
from the end of the 18th century to the
beginning of the 20th century?
• how do changes in art reflect changes in
society, politics, and economics?
• what are the major tenets of classical
liberalism, conservatism, and socialism
and where do we see examples in 19th
century Europe?
• what effect did the Industrial Revolution
have on art and philosophy?
Political/Economic Isms
• Classical Liberalism – what are the tenets?
– political
– economic
• socialism – tenets, early examples
Art Isms
• Neo-Classicism
• Romanticism
• Realism – reaction to Romanticism,
technology (like photography)
• Impressionism – reaction to new technology
random note: don’t forget changes in science
(more on this when we talk Imperialism)
Isms in Practice
• England – the road to a more liberal nation: Whigs and
Tories, Corn Laws, Peterloo Massacre, Reform Bills, Chartists,
Gladstone and Disraeli, unions, social welfare programs
• France – a bumpier road to a more liberal nation: Louis
XVIII, Charles X, Louis Phillipe, Revolutions of 1848, 2nd
Republic  Napoleon III, foreign adventures  3rd Republic,
Dreyfus Affair, social welfare programs
• Germany – more conservative, to be sure: Carlsbad
Decrees, Revolutions of 1848, Frankfurt Assembly, the crown
from the gutter
• Austria – still more conservative: Metternich, Revolutions
of 1848, Dual Monarchy
• Russia – Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, who’s the most
conservative of all? Decemberist Revolt  Nicholas I,
Alexander II and freeing the serfs, industrialization
Italian Unification
divided Italy
Mazzini and Young Italy
Count Cavour
Garibaldi and the Red Shirts
war as a means to unification
the Papal States
Italia Irredenta
German Unification
• precursors to unity: Napoleon and the
Confederation of the Rhine, Zollverein, Frankfurt
Assembly and the question of Greater or Little Germany
• Otto von Bismarck and Iron and Blood
• War! What is it good for? German
unification. Say it again!
• Bismarck’s Empire: Reichstag, Kulturkampf,
dismissal by Wilhelm II
Imperialism – Causes
• the old: 3Gs
• the new:
– markets and materials
– missionaries
– military bases
– ideology
Imperialism – Characteristics
• types: colonies, protectorates, spheres of
• locations: Africa, Asia
the End of Imperialism
• India: Sepoy Mutiny/Rebellion, Indian National
Congress, Gandhi and Nehru, Jinnah and the Muslim
League, Partition
• China: Boxer Rebellion, Sun Yat-sen, Mao Zedong,
Chiang Kai-shek, PRC and Taiwan
• Indochina: France, Geneva Accords (1954), Ho Chi
Minh, Vietnam War
• Middle East: Mandate System, Palestine  Israel
• Africa
– Kenya: Mau Mau Uprising, Jomo Kenyatta
– South Africa: Apartheid, Nelson Mandela