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Introduction to
Investments (Chapter
B 661
What is meant by “Investment”?
Why do individuals invest?
Basis of Investment Decisions
Structuring the Decision Process
New External Environment
– Globalization
– New versus Old Economy
– Technology
Meaning of Investments
• Commitment of money that is expected to
generate additional money
• Current commitment of dollars for a
period of time to desire future payments
that will compensate the investor for
– The time the funds are committed
– The expected rate of inflation, and
– The uncertainty of the future payments
• The investor can can be an individual, a
government, and/or a corporation
Why do individuals
• To achieve a higher level of consumption in
the future by forgoing consumption today
• To improve our welfare in the future
• Investments help us achieve tradeoff
between current consumption and future
• Basic element of all investment decisions:
trade-off between expected return and
Why Study Investments?
• The Personal Aspects
– To earn better returns in relation to the risk
we assume when we invest
– Knowledge of investments help investors
understand the relationship between risk and
• Investment as a Profession
– To become a licensed broker (series 7 exam),
to become CFA/CFP/CMA, knowledge of
investments is needed
Investment Decisions
• Underlying investment decisions: the
tradeoff between expected return
and risk
– Expected return is not usually the same
as realized return
• Risk: the possibility that the realized
return will be different than the
expected return
The Tradeoff Between
ER and Risk
• Investors
manage risk at a
cost - lower
expected returns
• Any level of
expected return
and risk can be
Risk-free Rate
The Investment Decision
• Two-step process:
– Security analysis and valuation
• Necessary to understand security
– Portfolio management
• Selected securities viewed as a single unit
• How efficient are financial markets in
processing new information?
• How and when should it be revised?
• How should portfolio performance be
Factors Affecting the
• Uncertainty in ex post returns
dominates decision process
– Future unknown and must be estimated
• Foreign financial assets: opportunity
to enhance return or reduce risk
• Quick adjustments needed to a
changing environment
• The Internet and investment
• Institutional investors important
Sources of Risk
Interest Rate Risk
Purchasing Power Risk
Bull-Bear Market Risk
Default Risk
Liquidity Risk
Callability Risk
Convertibility Risk
Political Risk