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2012 8-2 Powerpoints Period 4 Organic Compounds • Organic compounds are compounds that contain carbon. • The term organic is used because scientists once thought they could only be produced by living things. • However they can be found in products made from living things and in materials produced artificially in laboratories and factories. • Organic compounds are part of the solid matter of every organism on Earth. • Plastics, fuels, cleaning solutions, and many other products contain organic compounds. • Many organic compounds have similar properties in terms of melting points, boiling points, odor, electrical conductivity, and solubility. Where Organic Compounds Are Found • Part of Living Things: Ex. Muscle, blood, seeds leaves, feathers, & skin. • From Living Things: Ex. Wool, cotton, wood, silk, paper, & natural gas. • Produced Artificially: Ex. Gasoline, fleece, plastics, shampoo, detergent, & cosmetics. Hydrocarbons By: Karly Bonzi, Juan Rodriguez and Derek Allis Properties of hydrocarbons • Hydrocarbons mix poorly with water. Hydrocarbons are also flammable. • Hydrocarbons are used as fuel for stoves, heaters, cars, buses, and airplanes. • Hydrocarbon: simplest organic compound, only carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbon compounds differ in the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in each molecule. The simplest hydrocarbon is methane. Its chemical formula is CH . 4 A hydrocarbon with two carbon atoms is ethane. (C H ). 4 6 8.2 Structure of Hydrogen Carbons • Carbon chains in a hydrogen bon may be straight, branched, or ringed shaped • 2 or more atoms can form a single line or straight line • 4 or more carbon atoms are possible to have a branched arrangement of the Carbon atoms • Structural formula shows the kind, number, and arrangement of atoms in a molecule • Each dash (-) represents a bond 8.2 Ethane and Propaneeach carbon atom is bonded to at least one Carbon atom as well as to hydrogen atoms Carbon atoms forms 4 bonds Hydrogen atom forms 1 bond Never any dangling bonds Isomers By: Annika Muñoz-Christian, Kayla Flores, Jason Del Castillo and Jesus Roman Double and Triple Bonds • Structure formulas share single bonds between 2 carbon atoms. • Single dash= single bond • Carbon also forms double or triple bonds with only 2 carbons • (C=C) Is a double bond. (C=C) is a triple bond. • Carbon also forms single or double bonds with an oxygen atom. Isomers • Isomers are compounds that have the same chemical formula but different structural formulas. • Each isomer is a different substance with its own characteristic properties • Chemical formula of Butane: C H • This formula doesn’t show how the atoms are arranged in the molecule. 4 10 Isomers • Notice in the pictures below that a molecule of one isomer, butane, is a straight chain. • A molecule of the other isomer isobutane is a branched chain. • Both molecules have 4 carbon atoms and 10 hydrogen atoms, but the atoms are arranged differently in the 2 molecules. • These 2 compounds have different properties Classification 1.Hydrocarbons are classified by their types of bonds. 2.Single bonds already have the most carbons on its chain and therefore its called a saturated hydrocarbon. These can be thought of as filled up. 3.If they have a double or triple bond it is a Unsaturated Hydrocarbon. 4.In a Hydrocarbon name ending with “ane” it is saturated and if its unsaturated it would end with “ene” or “yne” Substituted Hydrocarbons and Compounds Containing Halogens Page 302 Team 6 Stephanie, Goki, and Mitchel Substituted Hydrocarbons • Hydrocarbons contains only carbon and hydrogen • Carbon can form stable bonds with several other elements, including oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and members of the halogen family • If only one atom of another element is substituted for a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon, a different compound is created Compounds Containing Halogens • Some substituted hydrocarbons, one or more halogen atoms replace hydrogen atoms. • Freon (CCL2F2), was widely used as a cooling liquid in refrigerators and air conditioners • When freon was damagine the environment, its use was banned in the United States Alcohols and organic acids By Westen Meyer, Carter Grant, and Cole Westwood Vocab • Substituted hydrocarbons: In this, atoms of other elements replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon. • Alcohol: a substituted hydrocarbon that contains one or more hydroxyl groups. • Organic Acid: A substituted hydrocarbon that contains one or more carboxyl groups. • Carboxyl Group: this group is written as -COOH • Ester: a compound made by chemically combining an alcohol and an organic acid. Esters Many esters have a pleasant, fruity smell. Esters are responsible for the smells of pineapples, bananas, strawberries, and apples. Esters can be ingredients in medications, including aspirin and the local anesthetic used by dentists. Esters are also sometimes responsible for pleasant flavors. Esters are compounds made by chemically combining an alcohol and organic acid. Alcohols An alcohol is a substituted hydrocarbon that contains one or more hydroxyl groups. Most alcohols dissolve well in water and have high boiling points. For instance the alcohol methanol is liquid at room temperature, while hydrocarbon methane is a gas. Methanol, which is extremely toxic, is used to make plastic and synthetic fibers. Substituted Hydrocarbons What are some characteristics of substituted hydrocarbons, esters, and polymers? Hydrocarbons mix poorly with water. Also, hydrocarbons are flammable. The carbon chains in a hydrocarbon may be straight, branched, or ring-shaped. Compounds Containing Halogens In some substituted hydrocarbons, one or more halogen atoms replace hydrogen atoms. The halogen family includes flourine, bromine, and iodine. Some of the elements can cause severe health problems, and can damage the environment. This is an example of the element flourine, which is highly toxic. Organic Acids An organic acid that is in many fruits like oranges and lemons is citric acid. Citric acid is what makes most fruits sour, as well as other foods. For instance, Acetic acid is the main ingredient in vinegar, and Malic acid is in apples. Malic Acid is in this Apple Polymers and Esters Sam, Grace, Thomas and Henry. Polymers Polymers are long chemical strings of monomers, which are smaller chemicals. You can think of it as a long string of beads. Esters • Esters are fruity smelling and they taste sweet. They can smell like different fruits like pineapple, apple, banana, strawberry, and others. Esters are made of alcohols and organic acids. They can be in natural or organic substances.