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2012 8-2 Powerpoints
Period 4
Organic Compounds
• Organic compounds are compounds that contain carbon.
• The term organic is used because scientists once thought they could
only be produced by living things.
• However they can be found in products made from living things and
in materials produced artificially in laboratories and factories.
• Organic compounds are part of the solid matter of every organism
on Earth.
• Plastics, fuels, cleaning solutions, and many other products contain
organic compounds.
• Many organic compounds have similar properties in terms of
melting points, boiling points, odor, electrical conductivity, and
solubility.
Where Organic Compounds Are Found
•
Part of Living Things: Ex. Muscle, blood, seeds leaves, feathers, & skin.
•
From Living Things: Ex. Wool, cotton, wood, silk, paper, & natural gas.
•
Produced Artificially: Ex. Gasoline, fleece, plastics, shampoo, detergent, & cosmetics.
Hydrocarbons
By: Karly Bonzi, Juan Rodriguez and
Derek Allis
Properties of hydrocarbons
• Hydrocarbons mix poorly with water. Hydrocarbons are
also flammable.
• Hydrocarbons are used as fuel for stoves, heaters, cars,
buses, and airplanes.
• Hydrocarbon: simplest organic compound, only carbon
and hydrogen.
Hydrocarbon compounds differ in the
number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in
each molecule.
The simplest hydrocarbon is methane. Its
chemical formula is CH .
4
A hydrocarbon with two carbon atoms
is ethane. (C H ).
4
6
8.2 Structure of Hydrogen
Carbons
•
Carbon chains in a hydrogen bon may be
straight, branched, or ringed shaped
• 2 or more atoms can form a single line or
straight line
• 4 or more carbon atoms are possible to have a
branched arrangement of the Carbon atoms
• Structural formula shows the kind, number,
and arrangement of atoms in a molecule
• Each dash (-) represents a bond
8.2
Ethane and Propaneeach carbon atom is
bonded to at least one
Carbon atom as well
as to hydrogen atoms
Carbon atoms forms 4
bonds
Hydrogen atom forms
1 bond
Never any dangling
bonds
Isomers
By: Annika Muñoz-Christian, Kayla
Flores, Jason Del Castillo and Jesus
Roman
Double and Triple Bonds
• Structure formulas share single bonds
between 2 carbon atoms.
• Single dash= single bond
• Carbon also forms double or triple bonds with
only 2 carbons
• (C=C) Is a double bond. (C=C) is a triple bond.
• Carbon also forms single or double bonds with
an oxygen atom.
Isomers
• Isomers are compounds that have the same
chemical formula but different structural
formulas.
• Each isomer is a different substance with its
own characteristic properties
• Chemical formula of Butane: C H
• This formula doesn’t show how the atoms are
arranged in the molecule.
4
10
Isomers
• Notice in the pictures below that a molecule of one
isomer, butane, is a straight chain.
• A molecule of the other isomer isobutane is a
branched chain.
• Both molecules have 4 carbon atoms and 10
hydrogen atoms, but the atoms are arranged
differently in the 2 molecules.
• These 2 compounds have different properties
Classification
1.Hydrocarbons are classified by their types of bonds.
2.Single bonds already have the most carbons on its chain and therefore its
called a saturated hydrocarbon. These can be thought of as filled up.
3.If they have a double or triple bond it is a Unsaturated Hydrocarbon.
4.In a Hydrocarbon name ending with “ane” it is saturated and if its
unsaturated it would end with “ene” or “yne”
Substituted Hydrocarbons
and Compounds
Containing Halogens
Page 302
Team 6
Stephanie, Goki, and Mitchel
Substituted Hydrocarbons
• Hydrocarbons contains only carbon and
hydrogen
• Carbon can form stable bonds with several
other elements, including oxygen, nitrogen,
sulfur, and members of the halogen family
• If only one atom of another element is
substituted for a hydrogen atom in a
hydrocarbon, a different compound is created
Compounds Containing Halogens
• Some substituted hydrocarbons, one or more
halogen atoms replace hydrogen atoms.
• Freon (CCL2F2), was widely used as a cooling
liquid in refrigerators and air conditioners
• When freon was damagine the environment,
its use was banned in the United States
Alcohols and organic acids
By Westen Meyer, Carter Grant, and
Cole Westwood
Vocab
• Substituted hydrocarbons: In this, atoms of other
elements replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a
hydrocarbon.
• Alcohol: a substituted hydrocarbon that contains one
or more hydroxyl groups.
• Organic Acid: A substituted hydrocarbon that contains
one or more carboxyl groups.
• Carboxyl Group: this group is written as
-COOH
• Ester: a compound made by chemically combining an
alcohol and an organic acid.
Esters
Many esters have a pleasant, fruity smell. Esters are responsible for the
smells of pineapples, bananas, strawberries, and apples. Esters can be
ingredients in medications, including aspirin and the local anesthetic
used by dentists. Esters are also sometimes responsible for pleasant
flavors. Esters are compounds made by chemically combining an alcohol
and organic acid.
Alcohols
An alcohol is a substituted hydrocarbon that
contains one or more hydroxyl groups. Most
alcohols dissolve well in water and have high
boiling points. For instance the alcohol
methanol is liquid at room temperature, while
hydrocarbon methane is a gas. Methanol,
which is extremely toxic, is used to make plastic
and synthetic fibers.
Substituted Hydrocarbons
What are some characteristics of substituted
hydrocarbons, esters, and polymers?
Hydrocarbons mix poorly with water. Also,
hydrocarbons are flammable. The carbon
chains in a hydrocarbon may be straight,
branched, or ring-shaped.
Compounds Containing Halogens
In some substituted hydrocarbons, one or
more halogen atoms replace hydrogen atoms.
The halogen family includes flourine, bromine,
and iodine. Some of the elements can cause
severe health problems, and can damage the
environment.
This is an example of the
element flourine, which is
highly toxic.
Organic Acids
An organic acid that is in many fruits like
oranges and lemons is citric acid. Citric acid is
what makes most fruits sour, as well as other
foods. For instance, Acetic acid is the main
ingredient in vinegar, and Malic acid is in
apples.
Malic Acid
is in this
Apple
Polymers and
Esters
Sam, Grace,
Thomas and Henry.
Polymers
Polymers are long
chemical strings
of monomers, which
are smaller chemicals.
You can think of it
as a long string
of beads.
Esters
• Esters are fruity smelling and they taste
sweet.
They can smell like different fruits like
pineapple, apple, banana, strawberry, and
others.
Esters are made of alcohols and organic acids.
They can be in natural or organic substances.