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What is Ecology? Chapter 3.1 & 3.2 Ecology • Study of INTERACTIONS among: – Organisms – Organisms and their surroundings Biosphere • Largest “ecology” • Contains all life on Earth. • A web of connections Levels of Organization 1. Species = group of organisms that are similar, can breed, and produce FERTILE OFFSPRING 2. Populations = groups of individuals that are part of same species & live in same area Levels of Organization 3. Communities = groups of different populations 4. Ecosystem = different organisms + their environment 5. Biome = group of ecosystems that have similar climates Abiotic vs Biotic Abiotic = non living things in ecosystem Ex: water, light Biotic = living things in ecosystem Ex: plants, species PRACTICE The picture represents individual animals that can breed and produce fertile offspring with each other. These are called a _______________. PRACTICE A group of individuals from the same species is called a ______________. PRACTICE Groups of populations living together is called a __________________. PRACTICE Groups of populations and their environment is a ______________________________. PRACTICE Groups of similar ecosystems are _________. PRACTICE 1. Can a biome near the equator be the same as a biome in Northern Canada? Explain. 2. Can a group of rabbits and a group of mice make up the same POPULATION? Explain. 3. Can a rabbit and a moose be part of the same SPECIES? Explain. PRACTICE 1. Write definitions for: Species abiotic Population biotic Community ecosystem biome 2. Draw examples for each definition 3. Color your pictures Ecological Methods Observing – observe species, populations, ecosystems Experimenting – experiment to test hypothesis Modeling – use models to test complex theories Energy Flow Do YOU need energy? What do you need energy to do? Energy Flow Do animals or plants need ENERGY? Where does our energy come from? The Sun SUNLIGHT! The main source of energy for life Only use 1% Producers Also called AUTOTROPHS Use energy from SUN to make food PRODUCERS Some use chemical energy to make food Photosynthesis CO2 + H2O glucose Chemosynthesis Producers Consumers Herbivores (eat plants) Omnivores (eat everything) Also called HETEROTROPHS CONSUMERS Decomposers (decompose everything) Detritivores (eat decomposing plants) Carnivores (eat meat) Consumers What type of consumer? What type of consumer? What type of consumer? What type of consumer? What type of consumer? What type of consumer? What type of consumer? Feeding Relationships Energy moves in ONE DIRECTION: Sun autotrophs heterotrophs Food Chains • Series of steps where energy is transferred by organisms through eating or being eaten. Ex: grass (producer) deer (consumer) wolf (carnivore) Food Webs • Links all food chains together Trophic Levels: • Each step in a food web Producers make up 1st trophic level Consumers make up 2nd, 3rd, higher levels Each level depends on the one below it for energy Food Webs Food Webs Food Webs PRACTICE You will EACH draw out a food web that connects at least 5 different food chains. Your food web must include: • A specific biome (ex: marine, grassland, forest) • 1 producer • Primary consumer • Secondary consumer • Decomposer • Label consumers as herbivores/carnivores/omnivores Ecological Pyramid • Shows amounts of energy or matter in a food web Energy Pyramid • Shows how much energy passes from one trophic level to the next • Only 10% of energy is transferred from level to level Energy Pyramid Biomass Pyramid • Total amount of living tissue • Shows amount of potential food available Biomass Pyramid Number Pyramid • Shows number of individual organisms in ecosystem PRACTICE 10,000 cal of energy