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Transcript
TAKS Objective 3
The student will demonstrate an
understanding of the interdependence
of organisms and the environment.
4C
• compare the structures and
functions of viruses to cells and
describe the role of viruses in
causing diseases and conditions such
as acquired immune deficiency
syndrome, common colds, smallpox,
influenza, and warts
Structure and Function
of Viruses
• Core of nucleic acid surrounded by a
protein coat.
• ‘Geometric’ in shape
Structure and Function
of Cells
 Membrane,wall(some),
cytoplasm,nucleus,organelles,nucleic
acids, protein.
 You will always “see” the nucleus
Structure and Function
of Viruses Vs. Cells
•
What structures and functions they
have in common?
–
–
–
Nucleic acid (DNA, RNA = genetic info)
Protein
Can change & adapt to surroundings
Major differences of
Viruses Vs. Cells
– viruses are not living!!!!
– Viruses must have a host cell
to accomplish most of the life
functions
– cells do not.
Diseases caused by
Viruses
-AIDS(HIV virus)
– Cold
– Chicken pox and Smallpox
– Flu
– Warts
4D
• identify and describe the role of
bacteria in maintaining health such as
in digestion and in causing diseases
such as in streptococcus infections
and diphtheria
Role of Bacteria
• Benefits (most bacteria)
- E.coli in digestive tract help maintain proper health.
– Used to make food such as yogurt and cheese.
– Decomposition recycles nutrients in the biosphere
– Produce beneficial drugs
Role of Bacteria
• Bad News
- Non-Serious Conditions: Cavities, acne, strep throat.
- food spoiling and poisoning
- Serious diseases/conditions: Lyme disease, Tuberculosis
One characteristic shared by a
virus and a living cell is that both
__.
a. store genetic information in nucleic
acids
b. have a crystalline structure
c. gain energy directly from the sun
d. use glucose for respiration
• Which one of the
following cannot
metabolize
nutrients?
Make sure you can identify
these types of organisms by
looking at their diagram.
7A
• identify evidence of change in
species using fossils, DNA sequences,
anatomical similarities, physiological
similarities, and embryology; and
Anatomical
and
Physiological
Similarities
Embryology
• 53 The table shows a
comparison of some amino
acids found in cytochrome c.
The two organisms in the table
that are most
closely related are —
The diagram shows
relationships of selected
species over time. According
to this information, which
of these species is expected
to have the greatest
phenotypic difference from
the ancestral species?
a.Species
c.Species
b.Species
d.Species
Q
T
R
U
7B
• illustrate the results of natural
selection in speciation, diversity,
phylogeny, adaptation, behavior, and
extinction.
Speciation- Formation
of New Species Due to:
– Separation of populations
– Changes in gene pool
– Reproductive isolation
– Ecological competition
– Natural selection
Natural selection- survival of fittest
Adaptation- characteristic that increases
chances of survival.
Extinction- disappearance of species
The myxoma virus was used to control an
overpopulation of European rabbits in
Australia. When first introduced in the mid1900s, the virus greatly reduced the European
rabbit population. Today the virus is not an
effective control of the European rabbit
population. Fewer European rabbits are
affected by the virus today because they
have —
F learned to avoid the virus
G moved away from infected areas
H undergone a change in diet
J developed resistance to the virus
9D/12 E
• analyze the flow of matter and
energy through different trophic
levels and between organisms and the
physical environment
• investigate and explain the
interactions in an ecosystem including
food chains, food webs, and food
pyramids
Ecosystems
• Producers
-Capture energy form sunlight or chemicals and
use that energy to produce food.
- Also known as autotrophs
• Consumers
-Cannot capture energy directly from the environment,
they rely on other organisms for their energy and food
supply.
- Also known as heterotrophs
Ecosystems
• Herbivores: eat only
plants
• Carnivores: eat only
meat
• Omnivores: eat both
meat and plants
• Decomposers: break
down organic matter
Flow of Energy/ Trophic Levels
• Sunlight provides the
energy for a food web
• Arrows indicate direction
of energy flow
• Greatest amount of
energy is at the bottom of
the pyramid
– 10% of energy is transferred to
next level of food pyramid
– 90% of energy is given off as
heat from one level to the next
Energy Pyramid
1 kcal
10 kcal
100 kcal
1000 kcal
Food Chains/ Food Webs
• Energy flows through an ecosystem in one
direction from sun or chemicals
producers consumers decomposers
• Food chain: series of steps in which
organisms transfer energy by eating and
being eaten.
• Food web: complex network formed by
feeding relationships among various
organisms.
Food Chain/Food Web
• The diagram represents
different levels of a
marine food pyramid.
Between which two levels
is the greatest amount of
energy transferred?
• A.
B.
C.
D.
R and Q
S and R
T and S
U and T
Follow the
arrows
carefully on
this one –
remember the
arrow points
from the one
being eaten to
the one that is
eating it. Read
the info to see
what is
supposed to be
eating what!
12 B
• interpret interactions among
organisms exhibiting predation,
parasitism, commensalism, and
mutualism
Can’t We All Just Get
Along?
• Mutualism: A
relationship in which
both organisms
benefit from the
relationship.
– Example: Clown Fish & Sea
Anemone – the fish receives
protection from enemies and
the anemone receives scraps
of leftover food from the
fish
Can’t We All Just Get
Along?
• Commensalism: A
relationship in which
one organism benefits,
and the other is
neither helped nor
harmed
– Example: Egret & Rhino –
the bird receives
protection from predators
by its proximity to the
rhino and the rhino is
neither helped nor harmed
Can’t We All Just Get
Along?
• Parasitism: A
relationship in which
one organism, who
lives on another,
benefits, and the
other organism is
harmed.
– Example: Deer & Ticks –
the ticks gain nourishment
from the deer and the deer
looses blood; ultimately may
die
Can’t We All Just Get
Along?
• Predation: A
relationship in which
one organism benefits
(the predator) and the
other organism is
killed/consumed (the
prey)
– Example: Lion &
Zebra/Rabbit & Lettuce –
the lion eats the zebra; the
rabbit eats the lettuce
•
•
•
•
Which of these is the best example of a
mutualistic relationship in an aquatic
environment?
F Some fish can survive repeated infections
by harmful bacteria.
• G Some fish have bacteria living in their
digestive tract that help the fish digest
food.
• H Some bacteria are present in aquatic food
chains in which fish are secondary
consumers.
• J Some bacteria are aquatic decomposers
that recycle nutrients useful to fish.
Which of the following is most
likely to cause increases in a
predator population?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Fewer prey
More parasites
A reduction in competition.
A period of drought
Now You Try!
•
•
•
•
Some bacteria benefit mammals by
helping with a.growth
b.digestion
c.defense
d.respiration
According to this
phylogenetic tree,
which organism is
most closely
related to R?
Which of the following explains this phenomenon?
F Competition
G Extinction
H Predation
J Speciation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
About 10% of the energy at one trophic level is
passed to the next level. What usually
happens to the energy that is not passed to
the next trophic level or used to carry out life
processes?
A It is given off as heat.
B It is stored as vitamins.
C It is used in reproduction.
D It is used in protein synthesis.
• After being introduced in the 1930s, the fire
ant (Solenopsis invicta) became established
throughout much of the southern United
States. One biological way to control fire ants
might be to introduce organisms that are –
A.
B.
C.
D.
mutualistic with fire ant queens
nurtured by fire ant workers
preyed on by fire ant drones
parasitic to fire ant larvae
• According to the
information in the box,
which of these best
describes the relationship
between rhizobia and bean
plants?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Parasitism
Commensalism
Opportunism
Mutualism
The picture shows a piece of
rotting wood. Which of
these does the picture
demonstrate?
A. Photosynthesis occurring
B. Decomposers growing
C. Wood regenerating
D. Genes transforming