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The Crusades
They were carried out by Christian
political and religious leaders to take
control of the Holy Land from the
Key Events of Crusades
Pope Urban’s speech (1095) – he was the
first of several popes to summon the
Christian West to the Crusades.
The First Crusade was the most successful
in that it actually accomplished what it set
out to do - conquer Jerusalem from the
• Christian knights captured
Jerusalem in 1099.
Founding of Crusader States
In the aftermath of the First
Crusade (1096-1099),
Europeans carved out 4 states
in Palestine, on the eastern
coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
Many castles and fortresses
were built to protect the states
from Muslim forces.
However, the Muslims gradually
recaptured the territory, and
European presence in Palestine
ended with the fall of the city of
Acre in 1291.
Key Events of Crusades
Loss of Jerusalem to Saladin (October2, 1187).
– The Muslim general captured the holy city.
Muslims immediately clambered up and removed
the cross that the Crusaders had mounted on
the cupola of the Dome of the Rock.
– According to an eyewitness, the combined roar of
the Muslims shouting "Allah is greatest!" and the
groans of the defeated Crusaders, watching the fall
of their sacred symbol, was so loud it shook the
Key Events of Crusades
► The
Sack of Constantinople by the Crusaders
(4th crusade).
 Probably the most telling event which displayed the
decline of the crusader ideal was the capture and
pillage of the Christian bastion of Constantinople by the
members of the Fourth Crusade in 1204.
Effects of Crusades
Weakened the Pope and nobles; strengthened
Stimulated trade throughout the Mediterranean area
and the Middle East.
Left a legacy of bitterness among Christians, Jews,
and Muslims.
Weakened the Byzantine Empire.
Ottoman Invasions of Europe and the
Byzantine Empire.
The Fall of Constantinople was the
conquest of that Greek city by the
Ottoman Turks under the command
of Sultan Mehmed II in 1453.
This event marked the final
destruction of the Eastern Roman
Empire (the Byzantine Empire), and
the death of the last Roman emperor.
Constantinople became the capital of
the Ottoman Empire and was
renamed Istanbul.
The Mongol Invasion
In the 1200s, powerful Mongol armies invaded Russia, China,
and Muslim states in Southeast Asia, destroying cities and
The Mongol Empire, although short-lived, was one of the
largest and most powerful empires ever on the face of the
Genghis Khan was a Mongol Khan and military leader who
unified the Mongol tribes and then founded the Mongol
Empire through conquest, pillage, and destruction.
Genghis Khan
"The greatest
happiness is to
vanquish your
enemies, to chase
them before you, to
rob them of their
wealth, to see those
dear to them bathed in
tears, to clasp to your
bosom their wives and