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The Crusades
In this lesson, students will be able to
define the following terms:
Students will also be able to explain one
cause of the Crusades and one effect of the
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In the seventh century, Muslims conquered
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Muslim Conquest
• In the seventh century, Muslims
conquered Palestine.
• Initially, the Muslim conquerors allowed
Jews and Christians to freely enter the
Holy Land.
• As time passed, some Muslim rulers were
less tolerant.
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wanted to visit
the land where
Jesus was born.
When a person
travels for
purposes, he
is a pilgrim.
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Rumors and Intolerance
• As the years passed, reports spread that
some Muslims had killed Christian pilgrims
and destroyed churches.
• European Christians were also
increasingly intolerant of Muslims
controlling the Holy Land.
• As tensions increased, war seemed
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In 1095,
Pope Urban II
called for
a crusade, or
war, against
the Muslims.
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Pope Urban II
• In 1095, Pope Urban II, the head of the
Roman Catholic Church, called for a
crusade, or war, against the Muslims.
• Ultimately, the Christians fought many
crusades against the Muslims.
• However, Christians never permanently
regained control of the Holy Land.
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For almost 200 years – from 1096 to 1291European crusaders went to the Holy Land.
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Many Europeans
Joined the
Crusades. Some
joined for the
promise of Heaven.
Others joined
hoping for wealth.
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• Crusaders were European Christians who
heeded the Pope’s call to regain the Holy
• Crusaders joined for many reasons.
• Some joined for the promise of Heaven,
others for wealth, and still others for
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often wore
a cross
on their
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The Effects of the Crusades
• Historians frequently call the Crusades “a
successful failure.”
• While Europeans never regained
permanent control of the Holy Land and
many people were killed, cultural diffusion
• Europeans began to trade with the Middle
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Europeans learned about Arab art,
architecture, medicine, and mathematics.
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Questions for Reflection:
• Why were Christians upset that Muslims
had gained control of the Holy Land?
• Define pilgrim.
• What is a crusade?
• Why did the Pope call for a Crusade?
• Why do historians call the Crusades “a
successful failure”?
• What was an effect of the Crusades?
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