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Chapters 1 & 2
Causes of Exploration
*After the Crusades (religious war),
Europeans wanted Asian goods ….which
led to:
*Italy dominated trade b/c it developed a
network during the Crusades….which led
*Other European nations want a share in
Italy’s profits….which led to:
*Other nations sought water route to Asia.
Countries of Exploration
 Spain
 France
 England
Reasons for Exploration
1. Spread Christianity beyond
2. To expand empires
3. To become rich
(The three G’s: God, Glory, Gold)
Vasco da Gama
*Portuguese explorer who was the first
to open a sea-based trade route from
Europe to India in his 1497-98
voyage around the tip of South
*Portugal took control of the valuable
spice trade
*Merchants became rich!
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama’s Route
Christopher Columbus
* Italian sailor thought he knew a faster
way to Asia by sailing west across the
* In 1492, the Spanish Monarch
financed his trip (Portugal turned him
* He set sail on Aug. 3rd with three
ships: Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria.
Christopher Columbus
•Land was spotted on October 12th.
• He was in the Caribbean Sea (He
believed he had reached the Indies, islands
in Southeast Asia).
•He named and the inhabitants “Indians”.
* He made 4 total voyages and at his death
in 1506 he still believed that he had found
Christopher Columbus’ Route
Impact of Columbus
*His voyages were not a complete
* Europeans had realized that
Columbus had reached continents
they had not discovered!
* His explorations began an era of
great wealth and power for Spain.
Impact of Colonization in the
Emergence of American Slavery
As more and more Native Americans
died from overwork and European
diseases, the Spanish and
Portuguese turned to another
source for labor: enslaved Africans.
The Europeans enslaved Africans
for four basic reasons:
1. Africans were immune to most European
2. Had no friends or family in the Americas to
help them resist or escape enslavement.
3. Provided a permanent source of cheap
4. Many had worked on farms in their native
*The voyage of the slave ships from Africa to
the Americas was called the middle passage.
Plan showing stowage of slaves
Impact of Colonization in the
2. The Columbian Exchange
* The transfer of plants,
animals, and diseases
between the Western and
Eastern hemispheres.
Things brought to the New World
from the Old
Disease: smallpox, Influenza, Typhus,
Measles, malaria
Livestock: cattle, sheep, pigs, horses,
honey bees
Grains: Wheat, rice, barley, oats
Fruits and Vegetables:
Peaches, pears, coffee beans, turnips,
olives, onions, grapes, citrus fruits,
bananas, sugar cane
Things brought to the Old World
from the New
*Animals: Turkeys
*Fruits, and Vegetables: Squash,
pumpkins, Sweet Potatoes, potatoes,
beans, corn, tomatoes, pineapples
*Other Plants:Peppers, tobacco, vanilla,