THE THREE ORDERS OF CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE A HISTORY OF THE ORDERS • Classical architecture is based on human proportions, and some think it is still the most beautiful way to relate people to their buildings and communities. Many of our civic buildings were designed using the Classical orders to reflect the ideals that guided our nation's founders. THE DORIC ORDER • The oldest, most substantial, and heaviest of all the orders • A very simple capital and without a base • Used in mainland Greece and the colonies in southern Italy and Sicily DORIC FEATURES THE IONIC ORDER • Thinner and more elegant than the Doric • Capital is decorated with a scroll-like design called volutes • First used in eastern Greece (i.e. Ionia) and the islands IONIC FEATURES THE CORINTHIAN ORDER • The lightest of all, which has a base and a plinth • A very decorative capital with foliage - acanthus leaves • Style similar to Ionic, especially the architrave • Seldom used in the Greek world, but often seen in Roman world CORINTHIAN FEATURES STYLES OF THE ORDERS DORIC VS. IONIC/CORINTHIAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FLOOR PLANS VITRUVIUS • VITRUVIUS (1st century BC) • Roman Architect Marcus Vitruvius is the author of the famous treatise 'De architectura'. The work is divided into 10 books dealing with city planning and architecture in general; building materials; temple construction; public buildings; and private buildings; clocks, hydraulics; and civil and military engines. • He was an admirer of Greek architecture and wished to preserve the classical tradition in the design of temples and public buildings. His work was used as a classic text book from ancient Roman times to the Renaissance. • http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/people_n2/persons2_n2/vitruvius.html THE PARTHENON (448-432 BC) • This was a temple sacred to Athena, on the acropolis at Athens. Built under Pericles between 447 B.C. and 432 B.C., it is the culminating masterpiece of Greek architecture. Ictinus and Callicrates were the architects and Phidias supervised the sculpture. • THE Parthenon in Athens • The Parthenon in Nashville THE PANTHEON (42 BC) • The Pantheon was a temple to all the gods. The Pantheon at Rome was built by Agrippa in 27 B.C., destroyed, and rebuilt in the 2nd century by the emperor Hadrian (c. 120). Remarkably well preserved, it is mainly of brick with a great hemispherical dome whose supporting walls are set in concrete. In A.D. 609 it was converted into a Christian church. It is also the resting place of the Renaissance painter Raphael. • The Pantheon • The Pantheon – a Map THE COLOSSEUM (80 AD) • The Flavian Amphitheater is in Rome, near the southeast end of the Forum, between the Palatine and Esquiline hills. Begun by Vespasian, c. A.D. 75, and completed by his son Titus in A.D. 80, it is the most imposing of Roman antiquities. The vast four-storied oval, much of which is still standing, had tier on tier of marble seats to accommodate c. 45,000 spectators. It encloses an arena measuring 250 X 151 ft where gladiatorial combats were held until A.D. 404. The Colosseum has been damaged several times by earthquakes. • Note the architectural feature of each IDENTIFY THE ORDER? • IDENTIFY THE ORDERS LOCAL ARCHITECTURE • Look around your town. Notice the architecture of local banks, churches, government buildings, and libraries. Walk through neighborhoods and look at the details of houses. With a keen eye, you are sure to find evidence of the Classical Greek "orders," even in the most modern buildings. • Here is the Circuit Court of New Haven. • Check out The Supreme Court in D.C.!