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Architectural History
Computer Aided Design-Architecture
Historical Cultures
Roman Republic (753 B.C.-476 A.D.)
• In the 7th and 6th
century BC, the
kings of Etruria
ruled Rome. This
was the country of
the Etruscans,
living north of
Rome. Towards the
end of the 7th
century BC, Rome
became a real city.
Above: Clay heating ducts
(hypocausts) embedded in the
wall of a house, Pompeii
• Roman style of architecture was under the
influence of the Etruscans till the fifth
century BC.
• Besides the influences of the Etruscan
architectural style there is the influence of
the Greeks. Especially the Corinthian style
had its influence. An important difference is
that the columns often lost their function of
bearing the roof. The Romans just used
them for the purpose of decoration.
Building Materials
• Natural stone was the most important
building material. Volcanic tuff stone was
found in different colors. Travertine, white
limestone from the surroundings of Tivoli,
was also popular.
Many Roman buildings were built of stone,
without the use of mortar or cement, and
later covered with bricks.
Roman Forum
• Roman Forum, was the
place where the victorious
legions held their
triumphal marches, where
the deaths of famous
persons were made
public, where the corpses
of emperors were burned,
where the heads of
emperors rolled, in short
the centre of power of the
Roman empire.
• The Colosseum was built
during the reign of
Emperor Vespasiano c. 72
AD and dedicated in 80 AD
by his son Titus.
• It is over 160 ft high with
eighty entrances. The
Colosseum could hold
upwards of 50,000
Arch of Titus
The Amphitheater, Pompeii
destroyed in August, 79 AD
Classical Period 479 - 323 B.C.
• Greek architecture has often been seen as
the ideal of artistic symmetry, grace,
strength and beauty. The Romans often
modeled their public buildings after Greek
temples, such as the Parthenon. Greek
architecture dominates the government
buildings of Washington D.C., and many
other cities around the United States.
Column Types: The Doric and Ionic columns were
seen in ancient Greece while the Corinthian column
was seen in ancient Rome.
Doric Column
• The Doric column was
sturdy, and its top was
plain. This style was
most often used in
mainland Greece and
the colonies in
southern Italy and
Ionic Column
• The Ionic column was
thinner and more
slender than the Doric
column. Its capital was
decorated with a
scroll-like design, and
figures were carved on
the base of the
• Elaborate and
decorative designs on
the top. Representative
of the Roman Empire.
• The Parthenon, built between 447 and 438
BC, is a great example of a temple that is
both beautiful and simple. The Parthenon
was built to house a huge gold and ivory
statue of the goddess Athena. The temple
had eight columns in the front and in the
back, and it was surrounded by a colonadde.
Government Buildings
• This picture was taken
of a government
building in Nashville,
Tennessee, that was
modeled after the Greek
style of architecture.
Many government
buildings were modeled
after Greek temples
because the temples
were so symmetrical and
Rich Person’s House in Greece
Chinese (2100-1600 B.C.)
• A Chinese structure is based on the
principle of balance and symmetry.
• The distribution of interior space reflects
Chinese social and ethnical values. For
example, a traditional residential building
assigns family members based on the
family's hierarchy.
Great Wall
• The Great Wall of China was
built mainly to protect the
Chinese Empire from
invaders from the
• This huge wall stretches over
1,500 miles.
• It is believed to be built
between 246 and 209 B. C.
• Roofs did not only
protect residences
from the elements,
they also had a deeper
meaning. For example,
temple roofs were
curved because the
Buddhist believed that
it helped ward off evil
spirits which were
believed to be straight
Mayan (2000 B. C. - 100 A. D.).
• The Maya are known for
many things, such as,
mathematics, food, and,
especially, their
architecture. Some of the
Maya's architecture
ranges from small huts, to
large houses, to beautiful,
elaborate temples.
• Almost every Maya structure varies in
height according to the substance that was
used on the building on the top (hay, stone,
• The steps, they were usually wide and steep.
They were built on either one or more sides.
• Mayas may have cut and polished the stone
blocks individually for their buildings. The
exterior as well as the interior walls were
originally covered with a substance called
lime stucco.
Egyptians - 2550 B.C.
• The architecture was based upon
perpendicular structures and inclined planes
since there was no structural assistance
except the strength and balance of the
structure itself.
• The size, design, and structure of the
pyramids reveal the skill of these ancient
builders. The pyramids were great
monuments and tombs for the kings.
How to build a pyramid...
• The ramps were built
on inclined planes of
mud brick and rubble.
They then dragged the
blocks on sledges to
the needed height. As
the pyramid grew
taller, the ramp had to
be extended in length,
and its base was
widened, else it would
• Andrus-Walck, Kathryn. "Roman Art and
Architecture." Harpy Web Site. Est. April 1996,
updated Jan. 2000. University of Colorado at Colorado
Springs. January 4, 2000.