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Asexual reproduction only one
parent-reproduction without the fusion
of gametes.
Sexual reproduction is characterized by
processes that pass a unique combination
of genetic material to offspring, resulting in
increased genetic diversity
Prokaryotes Reproduce with Binary Fission
•Doubling the genetic material
•Cell Elongation
•Separation of cytoplasm
More complicated
Must organize more
genetic material
1. What process must occur prior to
chromosome duplication?
a. Cell reproduction
b. Mitosis
c. DNA replication
d. Nuclear division
Clicker Question:
Which of the following best describes this cell?
A. A haploid cell
B. 2n=2
C. 2n=4
D. 1n=2
E. 2n= 2(2n)
Clicker Question:
How many tetrads are visible in the
A. None are visible
B. 1 is visible
C. 2 are visible
D. 4 are visible
E. 8 are visible
Eukaryotic Genome
Normal cells are diploid resulting
from combination of two haploid
cells (gametes)
What is the sex of
this person?
DIPLOID Cells, 2n
22 Autosomes -1
member of the pair from
each parent
1 sex chromosome pair1 member of the pair from
each parent
2n= 46 in humans, 1n=23
BEFORE we go further….
Homologous Pair
corresponding genes,
non identical
Sister Chromatids
one homologue
doubled, identical
Tetrad- both
members of the
pair doubled
Cell division that results
in the EXACT duplication
of parent cell into two
daughter cells
•Growth & Development
Zygote to 10 trillion cells!
•Asexual Reproduction
–Making more of
yourself; unicellular
Think about organizing 6ft of DNA in tiny cell for every division!
Growth Factors
Cells that have lost their
control of the cell
cycle and divide
• Abnormal check points
during cell cycle, no
• Loss of anchor
• Loss of cell density
Cancer Karyotype