Download Document

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Figured bass wikipedia, lookup

Program music wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
The Baroque Era
1585-1750
Copyright © 2005 - Frankel Consulting Services, Inc.
What was going on in the
world?






1607 - English settle Jamestown
1610 - Galileo confirms the Earth is round
1643-1715 - Louis XIV rules France
1687 - Sir Isaac Newton publishes his
Laws of Universal Gravitation
1732- George Washington born
1744-1748 - French & Indian War
What does the word Baroque
mean?
Baroque is a French word from
Portugese origins that means an
irregularly shaped pearl.
Originally the term Baroque was used
for the art works created during this
period in that there was an inherent
strangeness and extravagance
associated with them. Only recently
has the term also been used to
include the music, which is anything
but slightly flawed.
Characteristics of Baroque Music
 Known as Europe’s Gilded Age
 Musicians were employees of
the wealthy
 Returned to the Greek and
Roman ideals
Characteristics, cont.
Characteristics of Baroque
Music




Use of a Basso Continuo - harpsichord and
cello providing the base of the
composition.
Emphasized contrasts in texture, pace and
volume.
Strong use of improvisation in both
melodies, and the embellishments of those
melodies.
Most importantly - if you hear a
harpsichord, it’s almost always Baroque.
Baroque
Composers
Johann
Sebastian Bach
1685-1750
From Germany
Composed
cantatas
JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH



Famous for his fugues : Toccata
and Fugue in D Minor
Wrote S.D.G. at the end of all his
pieces (to the Glory of God)
His entire family was musical
Domenico Scarlatti 1685-1757
Francois Couperin
1668-1733
Henry Purcell
1659-1695
Georg Philipp
Telemann
1681-1767
Archangelo Corelli
1653-1713
George Frederic Handel
1685-1759
From England
Composed oratorios
GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDEL



Famous for oratorios
Composed “Messiah” – “Hallelujah
Chorus” is in this piece
Handel was a world traveler and man
of the world
Antonio Vivaldi
1678-1741
From Italy
Composed concertos
Antonio VIVALDI

Virtuoso violinist

Ordained priest

Taught violin at a girls’
orphanage in Venice

Wrote over 800 concertos
(500 for solo violin &
orchestra)

Majority of his works were
unknown until the 1920s

The Four Seasons (c. 1725)

Wrote over 800 concertos
(500 for solo violin & orch)

Also wrote 100 operas

Majority of his works were
unknown until the 1920s
(stored in a church archive)
Baroque
Instruments
Flute
Oboe
Recorder
Bassoon
Trumpet
Horn
Viola
Cello
Harpsichords & Claviers
Pipe Organ
Baroque music differs
greatly from Medieval and
Renaissance music.
Uses of Baroque Music





Church Music
Other Religious Songs
Secular Songs (love, politics…)
Instrumental Dances
Courtly Entertainment
Baroque Music Characteristics



Tried to paint pictures – music portrayed emotion.
The stabilization of music as we know it today.
Instrumental music is popular. It gained equal
importance with vocal music.
There was a transition from the church modes as
represented in Gregorian chants to a major-minor
system, as represented in the major and minor
scales we have today.




Composers used mixed groups of
instruments to perform works of great
complexity.
Music was no longer only functional, it was
made to be enjoyed as it’s own entity.
Composers began to search for inspiration
for their compositions in not only the
church, but in nature.
Baroque music is very similar to jazz in it’s
use of improvisation and figured bass.


Polyphony (“many sounds”) returned to a
high status.
Composers employed key characteristics in
their music, including: 1)Unity of mood;
2)Continuity of rhythm; 3)The repeated use
of a melody; 4)The use of terraced
dynamics; 5)The use of polyphonic texture
Even More about Baroque Music



The 1st opera of note was written in 1600 in
Florence, Italy.
Operas often used text from Greek and
Roman mythology
Orchestra, chorus, soloists, staging,
costumes, dancing
Baroque Music Vocabulary
Sonata

Instrumental music with several
movements.
Oratorio

Opera-length works with a clear storyline
but without the production elements.
Counterpoint


Two different notes play simultaneously.
This system began during the Renaissance.
Fugue

This is a polyphonic composition
consisting of a series of successive melody
imitations or the restatement in succession
of identical or nearly identical musical
material in 2 or more parts. A theme is
introduced by one voice, repeated by other
voices, and developed throughout the
piece.
Cantata


Designed specifically to be used in the
Lutheran church service. It is a work for
vocal soloists, chorus, orchestra, and organ.
Various churches today use cantatas to
celebrate such holidays as Easter and
Christmas.
Tomorrow,
Bach…