Mesopotamia Chapter 2 Sections 1-2 I.) The Influence of Geography Fertile Cresent was a ‘crossroads’ Mesopotamia means ‘between the rivers’ Villagers continually worked to control the floods, but they could not – unstable The Epic of Gilgamesh (creation story from earlier) was written in Mesopotamia Few natural resources; used clay and bricks to build structures The II.) Civilization in Sumerian Society Rulers of city-states had to protect/defend Seen as the chief servant of the gods Distinct social hierarchy – system of ranking groups High class – ruling family, officials, priests Middle class – lesser priests, scribes, merchants, artisans Lower class - peasant farmers III.) Sumerian Religion – belief in many gods Ziggurat – large platform topped by a temple dedicated to the city’s chief god Belief in the afterlife – it was a grim afterlife Polytheistic IV) Sumerian Technology Invented writing by 3200 B.C. ; it was called cuneiform (see page 33) Astronomers (see page 34) Number system based on our current system Oral narratives (Epic of Gilgamesh) All passed down to future westerners and invaders….and influence the world today! Chapter 2, Section 2 King Hammurabi King Hammurabi Received laws from the sun-god Shamash. (picture) 1711 to 1669 B.C = golden age of Babylon. Babylon became the political capital of the East Highly centralized government Dedicated to the welfare of his people. He is best known for his Law Code Hammurabi’s Top Ten !! 1. Read Hammurabi’s Rule 2. Read your agenda (rules section) 3. Imagine Hammurabi is the new dean (Mr. Wilgus) 4. Write his top ten rules. 5. Important things to consider – retribution, class, specific consequences, responsibility Hammurabi, Continued laws – codify = put in writing Civil law – rights, manners, contracts, taxes, marriage, divorce, etc; husbands have control, fathers have absolute power Criminal law – offenses against others were punished in various ways; encouraged social order Codified Kingdom on the Nile (Ch 2, Section 3) I) Without the Nile, Egypt would be desert Nile protects Egypt from invasion Nile limits settlements “Black land” vs. “Red Land” Annual floods helped farmers Upper Egypt (Southern Egypt) Lower Egypt (Northern Egypt) II ) Egyptian “Kingdoms” Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom Pharaohs rule by bureaucracy – a system of government that includes levels of authority The great pyramids are built ‘turbulent’ period Egypt was ruled by the Hyksos New Kingdom Conquered Nubia (Trading partner in the south) Poweful rulers; Hatshepsut was female pharaoh Group presentations!! 1 - Chief Gods and Godesses 2 - A Pharaoh tries to reshape religion 3 - Proving oneself to Osiris 4 - Mummification and Tutankamen 5 - Most people were farmers 6 - Changes to Social Structure/Egyptian Women 7 - Keeping written records 8 - Clues of the Rosetta Stone 9 - Science and Mathematics 10 - Egyptian Arts 11 - Egyptian Literature What’s in a Slide? Key points, vocabulary Pictures ! Use ONE source besides your book (talk about it in your presentation!) Take notes during other presentations Creation In the beginning, there was only chaos. This chaos was named Apophis, he was a giant snake god. Then there was a light a and this light was Re, he fought back Apophis and settled Egypt; and so the sun and Egypt were born. Re then created the god of air-Shu, the god of the earthGeb and his wife Nut-goddess of the sky, he also sculpted humans and placed them in the Nile valley so they cold worship him. Re was warned that one day a child of Nut and Geb would over throw him( he was Egypt’s first pharaoh), so he forbid them from having children on any day of the year. creation So nut went to the moon god, Khonosu she gambled with him and each time she won he gave her a little moon light she did this till she had enough to make 5 more days. Making the year 365 days long. On these five days she gave birth to Isis, Osiris, Set, Horus, and Nephthys. King Tutankhamen Son in law of Akhenaton Died and was mummified at 19 Had birth defects such as malaria and a bone disorder from incest Mummification Took 70 days Is the preservation of dead bodies by embalming them and wrapping them in cloth Was discovered because of King Tut Started out with nobles and pharaohs and then was used by ordinary Egyptians • Most Egyptians were peasant famers • Their main crops were emmer wheat and barley • Women also helped with farming along with their husbands working for soil and repairing the dikes • During the off- season they were expected to serve the pharaoh • Cattle were raised for their milk and for their fattening and then slaughtered for food, and they are also used for leather. Leather can be used in products from sandals to military shields. • The Nile flooded every year that made the land fertile. The farmers divided the seasons into 3 rather than 4 according to the behavior of the Nile. • The flood lasted from around June through September • The water then drained out from October until February • From then onto June it is “drought season” http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/ED/TRC/EGYPT/farming.html Dailey Life in Ancient Egypt- Chapter 5 “On the Farm” Egyptian Women •Women could inherit property, they could enter businesses, buy and sell goods, and they could also go to court. •They had a greater independence •Most women were not able to learn to read and write and even if they could they were not able to become scribes. •Egyptian sociEty was highly structurEd: a woman’s social position was largely defined by the status of hEr fathEr and husband. according to ‘maat’ thE Egyptian view of the order of the universe, it was dEfinitEly a man’s world. Keeping Written Records What is a written record? A written record is a set of signs used to represent units in a systematic way. Scribes often used hieroglyphics. They wrote on papyrus or carved it into stone. Hieroglyphics-was the another si1st writing system everyday Hieratic- simpler script for everyday Demoticscript for use Rosetta Stone • Dates back to 196 B.C. • A flat, black stone that has the same passage in hieroglyphics, demonic script, and Greek. • The meanings of Egyptian hieroglyphics was lost until the 1800s when Jean Chamollion began to decipher it. • The name Ptolemy was found in all three texts, thus the first hieroglyphics were discovered • Stone was first used to uncover mysterious writings on Egyptian monuments. • The Egyptian language was meant to be difficult to understand so the scribes could keep their jobs and others could not master the language. Science and Mathematics • • • • • • • • • • • • Egyptian physicians believed in various kinds of magic. Doctors performed complex operations and prescribed plants and medicine Egyptians developed a calendar that included 12 months and 30 days Geometry was developed to survey the land and calculate the size of blocks to use for building pyramids Mathematics was developed to face important problems in ancient Egyptian lifestyle Ancient Egyptians had a vast number system based on 10 10 – heel 100 – crook 1,000 – flower 10,000 - finger 100,000 – tadpole The standard measurement used in ancient Egypt was a cubit (approximately 21 inches) Egyptian Art Statues, wall painting and tombs, and carvings on temples. Paintings and sculpture styles stayed the same for a thousand years. Statues often showed people in stiff poses. Some human figures have animal heads that represent special qualties. Some show everyday scenes of trade, farming, family life, for religious ceremonies. Others boast of victories in battle. Artists always presented gods and pharoahs as much larger than other figures. Ancient Egyptian Literature Some of the oldest Egyptian literature includes: Hymns, prayers to gods, proverbs and love poems. They also recorded battles and through their victories they thought and recorded themselves as superior. They only seem to educate the high up in society, Artisans and Scribes. All Egyptian people learned the importance of table manners even the women who weren’t educated. The three types of Egyptian writing are Hieratic, Hieroglyphic, Demotic. Archeologist have found religious text in pyramids near the pharaohs tomb. Akhenaton Ordered priests to worship Aton (sun God) Tried to make religion monotheistic Ideas had little success Ordered workers to remove the names of other gods from their temples Nobles deserted him because he neglected his duty of defending the empire Osiris According to mythology, Osiris ruled Egypt until his jealous brother named Set kill him, cut him up into pieces and scattered him all over Egypt. Osiris’s wife Isis saved him by reassembling his body which saved his life. Now Osiris could no longer rule the living and became god of the dead and judge of the souls seeking admission to the after life. In addition to ruling the underworld he also was the god of the Nile. His role was to control the annual flood which made the land fertile. He is appeared to be a green skinned man who dress like a pharaoh. Proving yourself to Osiris The Egyptians believed that each soul had to pass judgment to win eternal life after death. First the dead would be ferried across a lake of fir to the hall of Osiris. Second the dead persons heard would be weighed against the feather of truth to determine whether he was a good person or not. Those that were judged as a sinner would be fed to the crocodileshaped Eater of the Dead. The good souls would live in a happy field of food forever in bliss. To survive this dangerous journey the Egyptians relied on the Book of the Dead which contained spells, charms, and formulas for the dead to use in the afterlife.