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Transcript
Science 8R
Marking Period 1 Review
1. Use the HR Diagram to answer the following questions.
A. Most of the stars on the HR
diagram are classified as which type
of star?
B Which stars have a higher
temperature?
Blue Giants or Red Giants
• Main sequence stars
• Blue Giants
2. Use the HR Diagram to answer the following questions.
A. Which star has the
lowest temperature?
• Betelgeuse
B. What is the temp
for Rigel?
• 20,000K
C. What is the temp
for Capella?
• 5000K
D. What is the
luminosity of Rigel?
• 8000K
BLUE
WHITE
F. Would the surface
temperature of white
• Higher
dwarf stars be higher or
lower than red giants?
YELLOW
RED
E. Which star has a
luminosity of about 1?
• The sun
3. What is revolution?
• The motion of one object around another object
4. Identify an object that carries out this process.
• The planets revolve around the sun.
• The moon revolves around the Earth.
• Asteroids and comets revolve around the sun.
5. How is a comet different from an asteroid?
• A comet is made of rock, dust and ice, while an
asteroid is a large chunk or rock. Both orbit the
sun.
6. Explain what a shooting star really is.
• A meteor (rocky object that enters the atmosphere)
that burns up
7. What is a meteorite?
• A meteor that makes contact with the surface of
the Earth.
8
9
10
a.
The larger the mass, the
greater the gravity.
b. What other factor, besides mass, affects gravity.
Explain.
Distance: As distance increases, gravity
decreases.
11. Explain the difference between
rotation and revolution.
•When an object rotates, it spins.
When an object revolves, it moves
around another object.
12. What is an effect of the Earth’s
rotation?
•Day and night
13. How long does it take the Earth to
complete 1 rotation?
•24 hours/1 day
14
a.
365.25 days/1 year
b. What force keeps a planet revolving
around the sun?
gravity
15. Explain when solar noon occurs.
• When sun is at its highest point in the
sky.
16. How long dies it take the Earth to revolve
around the sun?
• 365.25 days/1 year
17. Explain the time it takes a planet to
revolve around the sun as the distance
between the sun and a planet increases.
• The farther away a planet is from the
sun, the longer it takes to revolve around
the sun.
18
19
20
a.
Rotation of Earth’s on it’s axis.
b. How long does this process take?
24 hours/1 day
21
22
23
24. If the Moon does not produce it’s own light, then
why does it light up the night sky?
•It reflects light from the Sun.
25. How long does it take the Moon to revolve once
around the Earth.
•27.3 days
26. How long does it take the Moon to rotate once.
•27.3 days
27. Why would you weigh less on the moon?
•There is less gravity on the Moon.
28. How much time passes between 1 new moon and
the next new moon?
•29.5 days OR 1 lunar month
29. Name this phase!
Full Moon
30.
4
3
31.
2
32.
3
33.
1
34.
Which phase would a person on Earth observe when the moon
is position:
A. • New moon
C. • Full moon
B. • First
Quarter
D. • Last
Quarter
35.
29.5 days/ 1 month/lunar month
gravity
36. What causes the tides?
•Gravity from the moon
37. How often do the tides change (high  low
tide)?
•6 hrs 15 min
38.
a. How many hours are between one low tide and next low tide?
• 12 hours
b. What is the height of the water at 4am?
• 8.5 ft
39. Explain what causes the Earth to
experience the different seasons?
•Earth’s tilt
•Earth’s revolution around the Sun
40. Why does Earth experience Winter?
•The Earth’s pole tilts away from the sun,
and part of it receives indirect light (colder)
and less daylight hours.
41. Why does Earth experience summer?
•The Earth’s pole tilts toward the sun, and
part of it receives direct light (warmer) and
more daylight hours.
42. What happens on Earth during the vernal
equinox and autumnal equinox?
• Every place on Earth receives 12 hours
daylight and 12 hours dark.
43. What happens to the number of daylight
hours during the summer as you move from the
equator to the North Pole?
• The number of daylight hours increases.
44.
a.
1
b. What season is occurring in the
Northern Hemisphere?
Summer Solstice (NP pointed towards sun)
45.
• Earth’s tilt
• Earth’s
revolution
a. State one reason that Earth has seasons.
around the sun.
b. If Earth is at position D, how much
time would it take to return to position D? • 365.25 days
c. Which season begins in the
Northern Hemisphere when Earth is at • Summer solstice
position A?
d. At what letter is the Earth at perihelion? • C
46.
Spring Equinox
Sept 21
Summer solstice
June 21
Winter solstice
Dec 21
Fall Equinox
Sept 21
Identify each season, and indicate the date each season begins in
the Northern Hemisphere
47.
It decreases.
Winter Solstice
It’s pointed toward the sun.
48.
2
49.
2
50.
1
51.
If it is 1pm in the Eastern time zone, what time
is it in the mountain time zone?
11am
52.
What type of eclipse is shown above?
Total Lunar eclipse (earth is between the sun and moon,
moon is completely in Earth’s shadow)
53.
What type of eclipse is shown above?
Solar eclipse (moon blocks the sun)
54. Explain how a lunar eclipse differs from a
solar eclipse?
•During a lunar eclipse, the moon passes
though Earth’s shadow because Earth is in
between the Sun and the Moon.
•During a solar eclipse, the Sun is blocked
by the moon.
55. Where must an observer be located in
order to see a total solar eclipse as well as a
total lunar eclipse?
•In the umbra (dark part of the shadow).
56.
30
45
57.
Identify the latitude and longitude for each point.
A = 20°N, 30°W
C = 20°N, 25°E
B = 0°, 10°W
D = 20°S, 0°
58. Identify the latitude of the:
a. North Pole
•90°N
b. South Pole
•90°S
c. Tropic of Capricorn
•23.5°S
d. Tropic of Cancer
•23.5°N
e. Equator
•O°
59. Identify the longitude of
the:
a. Prime Meridian
•O°
b. International Date Line
•18O°
60
61
62. Identify the layers of the
atmosphere in order starting with
the layer closest to the Earth.
• Troposphere, stratosphere,
mesosphere, thermosphere
63. Identify the layer of the atmosphere
being described.
A. Airplanes fly here
• Stratosphere
B. Closest to Earth
• Troposphere
C. Meteors burn up here
• Mesophere
D. Ozone layer found here
• Stratosphere
E. Layer with highest
temp
• Thermosphere
F. Where different
weather occurs
• Troposphere
G. Contains the
ionosphere which helps
transmit radio waves for
communications
• Thermosphere
64. Identify the most abundant gas in the
atmosphere.
• Nitrogen (78%)
65. What type of surfaces absorb more heat?
• Dark surfaces
Identify the 3 ways heat os transferred.
• Conduction, convection radiation
66. Identify the type of heat transfer in
which the ground heats the atmosphere.
• conduction
67. What is the difference between
conduction and convection?
• Conduction occurs when the ground
heats the air by direct contact.
• Convection occurs when the air is
heated by warm air rising and cool air
sinking.
68. How is the surface of the Earth
heated?
• radiation
69. A sunburn is caused by which
method of heat transfer?
a. Radiation
b. Convection
c. Conduction
d. Visible Light
70.
71.
72. Explain what is causing ozone
depletion.
•CFC’s break down ozone layer 
more UV reaches surface of earth
73. Explain one negative effect of
ozone depletion.
•Increased risk of skin cancer
74.
75.
76.
May (Highest for each year is in May)
Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation
77.
78. What is global warming?
• Increase of earths temp over time
79. What causes global warming?
• Increases amount of greenhouse gases which
absorb heat
80. Identify a greenhouse gas.
• Carbon dioxide
81. Describe one possible effect of global warming.
• Ice caps are melting which can lead to increased
sea levels
• Climate changes which can lead to food
shortages
82.
83.
84. What happens to the weather
when an air mass moves over an area?
• The weather changes
85. Label each air mass below. Use
abbreviations.
mP
mP
mP
mT
cP
mT
cT
mT
86. For each air mass below, identify its name, and
describe the weather in each one.
A. cP
• Dry and cool
B. cT
• Dry and warm
C. mP
• Humid and cool
D. cT
• Humid and warm.
87.
88.