Science 8R Marking Period 1 Review 1. Use the HR Diagram to answer the following questions. A. Most of the stars on the HR diagram are classified as which type of star? B Which stars have a higher temperature? Blue Giants or Red Giants • Main sequence stars • Blue Giants 2. Use the HR Diagram to answer the following questions. A. Which star has the lowest temperature? • Betelgeuse B. What is the temp for Rigel? • 20,000K C. What is the temp for Capella? • 5000K D. What is the luminosity of Rigel? • 8000K BLUE WHITE F. Would the surface temperature of white • Higher dwarf stars be higher or lower than red giants? YELLOW RED E. Which star has a luminosity of about 1? • The sun 3. What is revolution? • The motion of one object around another object 4. Identify an object that carries out this process. • The planets revolve around the sun. • The moon revolves around the Earth. • Asteroids and comets revolve around the sun. 5. How is a comet different from an asteroid? • A comet is made of rock, dust and ice, while an asteroid is a large chunk or rock. Both orbit the sun. 6. Explain what a shooting star really is. • A meteor (rocky object that enters the atmosphere) that burns up 7. What is a meteorite? • A meteor that makes contact with the surface of the Earth. 8 9 10 a. The larger the mass, the greater the gravity. b. What other factor, besides mass, affects gravity. Explain. Distance: As distance increases, gravity decreases. 11. Explain the difference between rotation and revolution. •When an object rotates, it spins. When an object revolves, it moves around another object. 12. What is an effect of the Earth’s rotation? •Day and night 13. How long does it take the Earth to complete 1 rotation? •24 hours/1 day 14 a. 365.25 days/1 year b. What force keeps a planet revolving around the sun? gravity 15. Explain when solar noon occurs. • When sun is at its highest point in the sky. 16. How long dies it take the Earth to revolve around the sun? • 365.25 days/1 year 17. Explain the time it takes a planet to revolve around the sun as the distance between the sun and a planet increases. • The farther away a planet is from the sun, the longer it takes to revolve around the sun. 18 19 20 a. Rotation of Earth’s on it’s axis. b. How long does this process take? 24 hours/1 day 21 22 23 24. If the Moon does not produce it’s own light, then why does it light up the night sky? •It reflects light from the Sun. 25. How long does it take the Moon to revolve once around the Earth. •27.3 days 26. How long does it take the Moon to rotate once. •27.3 days 27. Why would you weigh less on the moon? •There is less gravity on the Moon. 28. How much time passes between 1 new moon and the next new moon? •29.5 days OR 1 lunar month 29. Name this phase! Full Moon 30. 4 3 31. 2 32. 3 33. 1 34. Which phase would a person on Earth observe when the moon is position: A. • New moon C. • Full moon B. • First Quarter D. • Last Quarter 35. 29.5 days/ 1 month/lunar month gravity 36. What causes the tides? •Gravity from the moon 37. How often do the tides change (high low tide)? •6 hrs 15 min 38. a. How many hours are between one low tide and next low tide? • 12 hours b. What is the height of the water at 4am? • 8.5 ft 39. Explain what causes the Earth to experience the different seasons? •Earth’s tilt •Earth’s revolution around the Sun 40. Why does Earth experience Winter? •The Earth’s pole tilts away from the sun, and part of it receives indirect light (colder) and less daylight hours. 41. Why does Earth experience summer? •The Earth’s pole tilts toward the sun, and part of it receives direct light (warmer) and more daylight hours. 42. What happens on Earth during the vernal equinox and autumnal equinox? • Every place on Earth receives 12 hours daylight and 12 hours dark. 43. What happens to the number of daylight hours during the summer as you move from the equator to the North Pole? • The number of daylight hours increases. 44. a. 1 b. What season is occurring in the Northern Hemisphere? Summer Solstice (NP pointed towards sun) 45. • Earth’s tilt • Earth’s revolution a. State one reason that Earth has seasons. around the sun. b. If Earth is at position D, how much time would it take to return to position D? • 365.25 days c. Which season begins in the Northern Hemisphere when Earth is at • Summer solstice position A? d. At what letter is the Earth at perihelion? • C 46. Spring Equinox Sept 21 Summer solstice June 21 Winter solstice Dec 21 Fall Equinox Sept 21 Identify each season, and indicate the date each season begins in the Northern Hemisphere 47. It decreases. Winter Solstice It’s pointed toward the sun. 48. 2 49. 2 50. 1 51. If it is 1pm in the Eastern time zone, what time is it in the mountain time zone? 11am 52. What type of eclipse is shown above? Total Lunar eclipse (earth is between the sun and moon, moon is completely in Earth’s shadow) 53. What type of eclipse is shown above? Solar eclipse (moon blocks the sun) 54. Explain how a lunar eclipse differs from a solar eclipse? •During a lunar eclipse, the moon passes though Earth’s shadow because Earth is in between the Sun and the Moon. •During a solar eclipse, the Sun is blocked by the moon. 55. Where must an observer be located in order to see a total solar eclipse as well as a total lunar eclipse? •In the umbra (dark part of the shadow). 56. 30 45 57. Identify the latitude and longitude for each point. A = 20°N, 30°W C = 20°N, 25°E B = 0°, 10°W D = 20°S, 0° 58. Identify the latitude of the: a. North Pole •90°N b. South Pole •90°S c. Tropic of Capricorn •23.5°S d. Tropic of Cancer •23.5°N e. Equator •O° 59. Identify the longitude of the: a. Prime Meridian •O° b. International Date Line •18O° 60 61 62. Identify the layers of the atmosphere in order starting with the layer closest to the Earth. • Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere 63. Identify the layer of the atmosphere being described. A. Airplanes fly here • Stratosphere B. Closest to Earth • Troposphere C. Meteors burn up here • Mesophere D. Ozone layer found here • Stratosphere E. Layer with highest temp • Thermosphere F. Where different weather occurs • Troposphere G. Contains the ionosphere which helps transmit radio waves for communications • Thermosphere 64. Identify the most abundant gas in the atmosphere. • Nitrogen (78%) 65. What type of surfaces absorb more heat? • Dark surfaces Identify the 3 ways heat os transferred. • Conduction, convection radiation 66. Identify the type of heat transfer in which the ground heats the atmosphere. • conduction 67. What is the difference between conduction and convection? • Conduction occurs when the ground heats the air by direct contact. • Convection occurs when the air is heated by warm air rising and cool air sinking. 68. How is the surface of the Earth heated? • radiation 69. A sunburn is caused by which method of heat transfer? a. Radiation b. Convection c. Conduction d. Visible Light 70. 71. 72. Explain what is causing ozone depletion. •CFC’s break down ozone layer more UV reaches surface of earth 73. Explain one negative effect of ozone depletion. •Increased risk of skin cancer 74. 75. 76. May (Highest for each year is in May) Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation 77. 78. What is global warming? • Increase of earths temp over time 79. What causes global warming? • Increases amount of greenhouse gases which absorb heat 80. Identify a greenhouse gas. • Carbon dioxide 81. Describe one possible effect of global warming. • Ice caps are melting which can lead to increased sea levels • Climate changes which can lead to food shortages 82. 83. 84. What happens to the weather when an air mass moves over an area? • The weather changes 85. Label each air mass below. Use abbreviations. mP mP mP mT cP mT cT mT 86. For each air mass below, identify its name, and describe the weather in each one. A. cP • Dry and cool B. cT • Dry and warm C. mP • Humid and cool D. cT • Humid and warm. 87. 88.