The Italian Renaissance The objectives for this powerpoint are: • Identify the change in human outlook that occurred during the time of the Renaissance • What were some of the civic monuments that were built to show this change? • Who created some of the masterpieces of the Italian Renaissance—and what were the new techniques that enhanced their art. • You will be able to identify Dante, Petrarch and Machiavelli’s ideas and importance in literature and political thought. The Renaissance marked a new age in thought and feeling The focus on heaven and the afterlife changed to the here and now. Many civic (city) projects were built • • • • • • Orphanages Hospitals Town halls Schools Squares Bridges Renaissance City States • Florence Italy Venice Genoa Different Governments • Some were republics • Others were Merchant Oligarchies • Others were controlled by despots (absolute power) • Some were controlled by military leaders (condottiere) • The states were small—there was constant friction among them. Condottiere, Renaissance WarLords. The Medici were the most famous Merchant family. Their home was Florence. Are you a Renaissance Man? • Are you excellent in all things? • Do you define the age? • Are you musical, literary, a fine swordsman • Can you appreciate the opposite sex? Are you a Renaissance Woman? • Are you submissive to your husband? • Can you bear many sons? • Can you run the domain while your husband is away? • Can you live past 40? The Renaissance influence the arts • Oil painting, canvas, perspective were all new inventions Perspective Massacio’s Tribute Money The High Renaissance— 1450-1527 • Da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo Popes were patrons of the High Renaissance • They used art and architecture to reestablish their power after the Great Schism The literary (writing) movement of the Renaissance was called Humanism. More works were being written in the Vernacular (language of the people) Scholars sought out the classical texts long forgotten • The area of law was the first area • Scholars examined old texts for the knowledge they contained • This thirst for authentic sources exploded in the Renaissance • Soon, the printing press would bring this knowledge to the rest of the Western World Petrarch (1304-1374)had a wide influence throughout the Renaissance • He loved to write letters, • Poems, • Revived interest in classics • Wrote sonnets about love Petrarch wrote sonnets to Laura and Mrs. Olsen Love poem to Mrs. Olsen Mrs. Olsen your eyes are likes stars, And though age decays you year by year, I will always love you, Do not fear Other writers include Boccaccio • While the Black Death raged in the countryside, friends gathered to hear stories. Dante (1265-1321), considered a Renaissance writer, lived just prior to the Renaissance. He wrote the “Divine Comedy” in Italian—the venacular, which means the language of the people The Divine Comedy was a trip through Heaven, Hell, and purgatory—a half way house for sinners Dante was in love with Beatrice, though he only spoke to her once, she remained a powerful inspiration Both Laura and Beatrice were famous inspirations to these great writers. They became immortal. Machiavelli (1469-1527) Some writers wrote about politics Machiavelli was concerned that Italy was not united. He wrote The Prince as a guide for rulers. We should now be familiar with his beliefs • The end justifies the means • It is better to be feared than loved • It is better to kill a person than take away his property. • Human nature can be predicted; most humans are selfish • Politics is not about morals or religion—it is about keeping a realm strong and peaceful. Machiavelli admired the New Monarchs in other countries • He was depressed that Italy was disunited and fighting. • He looked with envy on those monarchs who were busy united their realms, including England’s Henry VII, France’s Louis XI, and Ferdinand and Isabella. • Italy would not unite until the 1860’s— almost four hundred years after his birth in 1469. The Italian Renaissance ends. Various groups invade Rome and pillage and sack the city in 1527.