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A time of creativity and change in political,
social, economic, and cultural areas
Shift to a urban economy
Reawakened interest in Greece and Rome
Humanism was an intellectual movement that
stressed the classics and the potential for human
Petrarch is an early humanist and builds a library
What was it? 410-411
Artists 412-415
Leonardo da Vinci: painted Mona Lisa and the
Last Supper, painter, scientist, studied anatomy,
inventor “Renaissance Man”
Michelangelo: created the statue of David,
painted ceiling of Sistine Chapel, dome of St.
Peters Basilica
Religious themes, also revive classical works of
Greece and Rome
Begins in Italy because:
1. Center of Roman Empire (access to ruins)
2. Location on Mediterranean Sea encouraged
3. Banking and merchants encourage trade who
then support artists
4. Trade gave wealth
5. Trade routes gave them access to Muslim
6. Italy was divided into city-states and each
ruled by a wealthy family
7. Florence ruled by de’Medici family—
symbolized Renaissance
Why Italy? 411-412
Writers 416
Castiglione—wrote The Book of the Courtier, which
describes skills a member of court should have –wellmannered and well educated and was good at many
Machiavelli—wrote a guide for ruler on how to gain
and keep power
Raphael: most famous for his Madonna’s
The Prince—book by Machiavelli that stressed that
the end justified the means –use methods needed to
achieve goals
Machiavellian—refers to the use of deceit in politics
Realistic art—use perspective, shading, oil paints
Study human anatomy to be realistic
Architecture: becomes more beautiful, add
columns, arches, and domes
Brunelleschi and Donatello both were important
Renaissance Art 412-413
Northern Renaissance 418-420
Johann Gutenberg—created printing press with
movable type—quickly spreads the Renaissance
and its ideas
Vernacular—everyday language of the people—
appeals to more people
version of Bible
Thomas More—described ideal society and
wrote Utopia, which now describes ideal
Shakespeare—English Renaissance writer who
wrote over 37 plays, both comedy and tragedy
and also sonnets