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Transcript
Digestion
Digestion
I. Functions of the digestive system
1. _________________
2. _________________
3. _________________
4. _________________
5. _________________
Digestive System Video
II. Digestive Structure & Function
A. Organization
1. Alimentary Canal (GI tract).
a. _________
b. _________
c. _________
d. _________
2. Accessory Organs
a. Located _______
or __________ the GI
tract.
B. Digestive Processes
1. __________________
2. __________________
3. __________________
4. __________________
5. __________________
6. __________________
Review
• State the functions of the digestive system.
• Name & describe the 6 processes of the
digestive system.
III. Features of the Digestive System
A. Peritoneum
1. _________ –serous membrane that lines
the abdominal pelvic walls.
2. _________ (serosa) – lines the
organs.
3. _________________ – Space within the
abdominal pelvic cavity.
4. ________________ supportive
ligament for liver.
5. __________________ - connective tissue
that holds many abdominal organs in place.
6. ________________________- mesentery
that connects the lesser curvature of the
stomach to the liver and diaphragm.
7. __________________ (mesentery
proper) – mesentery connecting
the greater curvature of the stomach to
the transverse colon.
8. The greater omentum is usually
__________, double ________
mesentery that extends inferiorly
and loops back to the colon
creating a cavity known as the
___________________.
9. Greater omentum usually fills
with _______________.
10. _________________abdominal organs that lie behind
the peritoneum.
B. Wall Structure of the Alimentary
Canal
1. ____________ – Mucus
membrane that lines the
lumen.
2. _____________ – Loose
connective tissue
(blood & lymph tissues).
3. ______________ – muscle
(circular & longitudinal
fiber).
4. ____________ – Visceral
peritoneum, outer
covering.
Review
• What is the functions of the mesenteries,
greater & lesser omentum?
• What are the layers of the digestive tract?
IV. Digestive Organs of the
Alimentary Canal.
A. Mouth & Accessory Organs
1. _________________
2. _________________
3. ___________ – large
muscular organ.
_______________-attachs
tongue to floor of
mouth.
4. __________________
a. Deciduous
________ by 2 yrs.
b. Permanent
________ between ,17-25 yrs.
1. _____________ – chisel – cutting
2. _____________ – cone shape –
tearing
3. _____________
4. __________ – broad
& flat - grinding
c. Structure
1. ___________ – visible part of the
tooth.
* _________ – protection,
hardest substance of the
body.
*Cells _______ shortly after
tooth break through,
______________ of repair.
2. ____________ – between two regions.
3. _________ – below gums.
4. ____________ – slightly harder than
bone, surrounds pulp cavity.
5. ____________-Soft connective tissue
(blood & nerve).
Review
• List the functions of the lips, cheeks, &
tongue.
• What are deciduous and permanent teeth?
Name the different kinds of teeth?
• Describe the parts of a tooth. What are
dentin, enamel, & palate?
6. Salivary Glands
a. __________ – ______water, .____solutes
1. Liquid medium for ________ food
particles.
2. ____________ for swallowing.
3. Enzymes –
_____________ –
destroys ____________.
_________________
– ___________ chemical
digestion of
___________________
b. Glands
1. _______ – Largest in front of ears.
2. _________________ – floor of
mouth for mucus.
3. ____________ – under tongue, for
mucus.
c. Digestion in Mouth
1. __________ IN THE _________.
2. ________________ – Chewing.
3. _____________ – compact
mass of food & salvia.
B. Pharynx & Esophagus
1. _________________ food from the mouth to
the stomach ____________ further processing
a. ______________
b. ______________
c. ______________
2. Deglutition
a. ___________ – bouls moves to the back
of the mouth
b. Pharyngeal- reflex begins with the
_______ of the soft palate, then
pharyngeal muscles _________to
force food through the pharynx.
__________ is tipped _________.
c. Esophageal- swallowing by ___________
waves
Review
• What is the function of saliva?
• Name the salivary glands.
• What is the job of the esophagus?
C. Esophagus
1. ____________ tube
2. _______ inches long
3. _________ when not propelling food
4. Behind ___________
5. _____________________ – opening of esophagus
6. Esophageal sphincters
a upper
b. Lower esophageal sphincter – valve
that __________________ upward movement.
________________ – weak & permits
leakage of stomach juices which
irritation to esophagus.
D. ________________ – _________ & ________ Digestion
1. Stomach
a. __________________ – 10 inches long
b. _______________ – deep folds in inner lining
c. _______________________– Convex
d. ______________________ – Concave
e. Four Regions
1. ___________ – Opening that receives food.
2. ___________ – Expanded regions above cardia, temporary
holding regions.
3. ___________ – Main part.
4. ___________ – Narrow inferior region
f. Sphincter – ____________ within stomach
1. ___________ – Esophagus & Stomach
2. ___________ – Stomach & small intestines
2. Stomach Wall
a. _________ basic layers
1. __________
-gastric pits
-gastric glands
________ – HCL, Intrinsic factor
________ – ___________ -> ________
________ – Mucus
-Gastric Juices _______ L/day
2. ___________
3. ___________
Additional layers that mix & churn
4. ___________
3. Function of Stomach
a. ____________________ – mixing & churning
b. ____________________ – Gastric juices
1. ____________ – _________ (_________ to prevent it from digestion of own cells)
2. ____________ – _________ which activates pepsinogen to pepsin.
3. ___________________ breaks down nearly ______ _________.
4. ____________ – Coats to prevent digestion of stomach.
-gastric ulcers
c. Absorption
1. _________
2. _________
3. _________
4. ___________
5. ___________
6. ___________
d. Propulsion – __________________
1. ____________- small food particles & gastric juices.
2. ____________- weak contraction which mixes
food with stomach secretions.
3. ____________- stronger contractions that
force chyme toward and through the pyloric
sphincter.
e. Intrinsic Factor
___________ & ____________ – aids in Vitamin _______
________________ by small intestines, which is
important in ____________ production.
Review
• Describe the parts of the stomach.
• How are the stomach muscles different from
those in the esophagus?
Digestion from the inside
f. Regulation of Stomach Function
1. Beginning of Digestion
-Primary by ____________________ center of the brain &
hormones – _______________
Brain (___________)
___________
_____________ - Smell, think, see, hear
_____________ -Gastric Glands
Gastirc Juices
Continued Reflex (Stretching of stomach by food)
2. Ending of Digestion
___________________ -Presence of _______ in upper ___________
triggers nerve reflex to stimulate contraction of the pyloric
valve, which prevents more acid from entering
.-Secretin & Cholecystokinin (CCK) ____________________________.
________________ stomach peristalsis & stimulate
pancreatic enzyme & bile into small intestines.
3. Regulation
a. Controlled by the ____________ _________ & ____________
1. _______________
-Released into the bloodstream because of the
_______________ in the ___________________.
- ___________ the gastric secretion.
-Causes __________ to release __________ ions
to _______________ the ____________.
2. _______
-Release in response to _______ & _________ into
the small intestines.
-Cause the __________ to release pancreatic
juices.
-Digestion to release ________________.
-____________ gastric juices & peristalsis.
4. Small Intestines
A. Structure
1. ____________ segment of the GI tract (_____ ft).
2. _____ inch in diameter.
3. Three segments
- _____________ receives chyme from the
stomach, _____ in long.
-__________ – _____ft
-_________________- _____________ ft – unites the
small & large intestines
- ________________
B. Wall of intestines –
Same ______ layers with modification - increase
SA by ______ X’s
circular folds mucosa & submucosa
villi
_________ – lymphatic vessel
microvilli
Small Intestines
C Layers
1. _____________
a. cells
-______________ – have microvilli, produce digestive
enzymes, absorb digested food.
- _____________ – produce mucus.
- _____________ – produce regulatory hormones.
- ____________ (Paneth’s cell)- help protect from bacterial
infection.
b. glands
_______________ – secretes water & mucus.
______________ – produce mucus.
2. _______________
______________ – only in walls of duodenum for neutralizing.
(_____________) – fights off infection.
3. _______________
4. _______________
C. Function
1. Completes __________ digestion
a. _______________________ – pancreatic duct
b. ______________ – common bile duct
- __________- proteins
- disaccharides- disaccharides into
monosaccharides. (maltose & isomaltose)
2. Absorption – _________ site of __________ absorption
(duodenum & jejunum).
3. Propulsion – mix & move contents toward the
large intestines.
__________________ - through the intestine.
__________________ – mixing in short segments
a. Diarrhea – _________
b. Constipation – _________
Review
• 1. What secretions complete the chemical digestion
of food particles?
• 2. What nutrients can be absorbed by the intestinal
walls?
• 3. How are the layers of the small intestine modified
for their function?
• 4. What are circular folds, villi, & microvilli in the
small intestine? What are their functions?
5. Large Intestines
- ___________ of _________
- Process of _________
A. Structure
1. _____ ft long, ______in in diameter
2. 4 segments.
a. _____________________ material from the ileum.
Short ______ like segment below ________
valve.
_________________________ – appendicitis.
b. ____________- _______________ absorption site
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
B. _________ – ________of fecal material
C. ______________ – ____________ to the _____________.
______________ – __________- ____________.
______________- ___________ - _____________
D. Wall of intestine
1. Same four layers with modification.
-__________ –
_____ villi, has deep folds, large
number of ________ secreting cells to
bind contents together & for easier
defecation.
-____________deep folds
-____________ –
__________ bands
__________ form pouches called
– ________.
-Anal Canal –
__________ to reduce ___________
during defecation.
2. Function
a. Mucosa _______ much of the remaining ______ & _____________ in ______.
b. ____________ – feces ____% water & ___% ______________ wastes.
c. _________ is a result of _______ altered by _______________.
1. _________ there than anywhere else in the body.
2. Produces _____________
3. metabolism produces _______, ______, ________,
______________.
4. Most of gas is _________________.
3. Defecation or Elimination
a. Propulsion (peristalsis of feces through the large intestines (_________
hrs) for colon.
____________ movements- _________hrs , moves contents 20 cm
towards anus.
b. __________ until the rectum is _______
c. Once full, nerve receptors in rectal wall stimulate defecation reflex.
__________________________ reflex
Review
• 1. What are the divisions of the large
intestines?
• 2. What is the function of the large intestines?
• 3. How is chyme converted to feces?
• 4. Describe the defecation reflex.
V. Accessory Organs
A. Pancreas – ______ range of ________
1. Structure
a. _______
______
_________
b. _______ – exocrine secretory cells.
Pancreatic juices into the pancreatic ducts &
fuses with the common bile duct.
c. I____________________ – Produces __________ & ___________
2. Function
a. ______/day
b. Pancreatic _________ – ____________
c. ______________– _____________
d. _____________ – _____________
e. Pancreatic ___________ – __________
f. __________________ – breaks down _______ & ______
Pancreas Video
B. Liver – _________ internal organ of the body at 1.36 Kg.
1. Structure
a. _______ or sections
1. Right – _____
2. Left – _______
b. ________ and _______– _______ sub divisions of the
lobes.
c. ____________ – gateway to the liver
d. Hepatic ______- oxygen _______ blood to the liver
e. Hepatic ______ – oxygen ______ blood from the liver to the
vena cava.
f. Hepatic _____________ – oxygen poor blood but high in
nutrients to the liver.
g. __________-smaller divisions .
h. Portal _______ three structures
1. hepatic __________
2. hepatic __________
3. hepatic __________
i. Hepatic ___________
j. Hepatic ______________
k. __________________
Liver
Liver Lobules
k. (cont.)___________ – Liver cells arranged in columns around a
central vein.
l. _______________ – Phagocytic cells that remove bacteria from
the blood that came from the digestive tract.
m. _________________- Secrete bile.
n. __________________________
o. __________________________
p. Common _________________
q. ______________________ opening in small intestines from the
common bile duct and the pancreatic duct.
2. Function
a. Secretion of Bile, _________ ml/day
-Emulsification of _________.
-_________ of vitamin _____________________.
-________________-bile pigments
b. Metabolism of lipids
-_______________ – package of fat for transport & storage.
-_________ – transports cholesterol to liver –
beneficial in repair, growth, but tends to
accumulate in the body spaces when not used.
-_________ – Transport cholesterol to cells-production of
hormones, harmful-atheroscerosis.
-VLDL’s
c. Stores glycogen, vitamins A, D, B12
d. _____________ harmful substances in the blood stream – alcohol.
3. Control of Bile secretion & release
a. _____________– liver
b. _____________ – gall bladder
c. ___ % of bile is ___________ in the ________
Digestion, Absorption and
Transport
Co Transport
V. Digestion, Absorption and Transport
A. Carbohydrates
1. ____________ and ___________ transport
B. Lipids
1. _______________
2. ____________– lymph that contains high
amount of absorbed lipids.
Types of lipoproteins
C. Protein
1. _______________
2. _______________
Digestion Summary
Water & Mineral Absorption
______L goes into the digestive
tract each day.
_____% of the water is
absorbed by the
________________.
____% in the ______________.
____% ________the ______
with feces.
Minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P) are
actively transported.
V. Disease
A. _________________
___________________of intestinal wall
____________ & ___________
Caused by _________, __________, &
_____________
Blood or mucus in feces.
B. Hemorrhoids
__________ veins __________ the anal canal
C. _____________________
______________of the ________ through the
______________ & _____________.
D. _________________
Increased acid ___________& digestive enzymes erodes the mucosal
lining.
Stomach – _______________
Intestine – _______________
Abdominal pain
E. _________________
Inflammation & death of liver tissue
Virus or chemical toxin (alcohol)
_______– transmitted by food, liquids, & body fluids
_______ – Serum – blood & blood products
_______
_______ – refusal to eat
_______ – lack of energy
Nausea
Diarrhea
Vomiting
Fever
F. _________________
G. _________________– Salmonella typhi
H. ________ – Vibrio cholerae ___________ L of
fluid/day
I. ________________
J. _________________
K. _________________