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Human Body
Systems
How many human body systems are
there?
 Digestive
 Respiratory
 Excretory
 Circulatory
 Skeletal
 Muscular
Reproductive
Nervous
Endocrine
Nutrition
 are substances in food
that provide raw materials and
energy the body needs to carry out
all essential processes.
 Nutrients
There
are six kinds of nutrients:
carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
vitamins, minerals, and water.
Carbohydrates
Example
 Sugar and
Starches
Function  main source of
energy of life processes
Fat
 Fat
 Example  oils, butter, cream
 Functions  A reserve energy
supply, building material for
certain cell structures
 Nutrient
Protein
 Example
 Meat, eggs, beans,
milk, fish
 Functions supplies amino
acids which make new cells and
body chemicals, repair and
maintains body tissues
Vitamins
 A, B, C, D, K
Functions  Necessary for
good health and a healthy
body, lack of a vitamin can
cause disease
Example
Minerals
 Calcium, iron,
potassium
Functions  Regulate body
functions, needed for
structure of body parts,
maintain good health
Example
Water
 Dissolves and
transports materials in the
body which is 70% water,
needed for chemical
reactions in the body
Functions
Digestive System
 Is
responsible for breaking down
food into molecules the body can
use.
 Then the molecules are absorbed
into the blood and carried
throughout the body.
 Finally, wastes are eliminated from
the body
Digestive System
 There
are several parts:
Mouth
Pancreas
Esophagus
Large Intestine
Stomach
Small Intestine
Liver
Mouth & Salivary Glands
 Function:
Physical and
Chemical breakdown of food
 Physical when your teeth are
breaking down the food
 Chemical the breakdown of
complex molecules into simple
(by enzymesAmylase)
Esophagus
 Connects
the mouth to the
stomach
 Epiglottis seals off your
windpipe, preventing the food
from entering.
 Peristalsis waves of muscle
contractions- pushes food through
the to the stomach
 J-
Stomach
shaped, muscular pouch
 Pepsin & Protease enzyme
digests proteins
 Hydrochloric Acid  strong
acid helps protease, kills bacteria
 Mucus  coats and protects the
lining of the stomach
Small Intestines
 Completes
chemical digestion,
food is absorbed and transported
to cells by blood.
 Produces protease, amylase, lipase
enzymes
 Long & folded increase surface
area. Tiny finger-like=villi cover
inner surface increase surface area.
 Produces
Liver
chemicals needed for
digestion
 Liver breaks down medicines &
produces bile
 Bile breaks down fat particles &
neutralizes stomach acid
Pancreas
 Triangular
shaped organ,
between stomach and small
intestines
 Produces enzymes (protease,
amylase, lipase) that flow into
the small intestines
Large Intestines
½ meters long (as long as a
bathtub)
 Absorbs excess water, collects
undigested food for removal
from body
1
Rectum & Anus
Rectum
short tube where
waste is compressed into
solid form
Anus  waste material is
eliminated from the body