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NUTRITION Fitness for Life OBJECTIVE: OBJECTIVES FOR THIS UNIT: Students will: Students will: 1) List the 6 nutrients. 2) Describe the caloric value of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. 3) Describe the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats and name some examples of each. 4) Understand the difference between complete and incomplete proteins and name some examples of each. 5) Understand the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates and name some examples of each. 6) Describe the needs (% of total calories) of active individuals. 7) Describe the food pyramid, the five major food groups contained within, and the number of recommended servings in each food group. 8) Develop the skills needed to effectively read food labels. 9) Perform and evaluate a personal nutrition analysis. Nutrition The heavy toll of diet-related chronic diseases – From 2010 US Dietary Guidelines cardiovascular disease • 81.1 million Americans—37 percent of the population—have cardiovascular disease. Major risk factors include high levels of blood cholesterol and other lipids, type 2 diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), metabolic syndrome, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, and tobacco use. • 16 percent of the U.S. adult population has high total blood cholesterol. hypertension • 74.5 million Americans—34 percent of U.S. adults—have hypertension. • Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, and kidney disease. • Dietary factors that increase blood pressure include excessive sodium and insufficient potassium intake, overweight and obesity, and excess alcohol consumption. • 36 percent of American adults have prehypertension—blood pressure numbers that are higher than normal, but not yet in the hypertension range. diabetes • Nearly 24 million people—almost 11 percent of the population—ages 20 years and older have diabetes. The vast majority of cases are type 2 diabetes, which is heavily influenced by diet and physical activity. • About 78 million Americans—35 percent of the U.S. adult population ages 20 years or older—have pre-diabetes. Prediabetes (also called impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose) means that blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be called diabetes. cancer • Almost one in two men and women—approximately 41 percent of the population—will be diagnosed with cancer during their lifetime. • Dietary factors are associated with risk of some types of cancer, including breast (post-menopausal), endometrial, colon, kidney, mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. osteoporosis • One out of every two women and one in four men ages 50 years and older will have an osteoporosis-related fracture in their lifetime. • About 85 to 90 percent of adult bone mass is acquired by the age of 18 in girls and the age 20 in boys. Adequate nutrition and regular participation in physical activity are important factors in achieving and maintaining optimal bone mass. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines put forth, among other things, that the optimal diet is one that limits red and processed meats, refined sugar, sodium and saturated fat. It includes consumption of local foods, fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, low fat dairy, and dismisses past recommendations on limiting cholesterol in the diet except for those people diagnosed with diabetes, certain other health issues, or already on cholesterol lowering medication. Scientists have identified 45-50 different nutrients (food substances) that are required for the growth and maintenance of your cells. These have been divided into 6 groups: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Water Provide the body energy Carbohydrates • • • • Carbohydrates provide your body with energy that can be used during exercise. Carbohydrates contain (4 calories per gram), so a food with 10 grams of carbohydrate provides 40 calories of energy. 55% to 60% of your total calories should come from carbohydrates. 15% or less should come from simple carbohydrates. 40-50% should come from complex carbohydrates. Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates (15% or less) are found in fruit, molasses, honey, and anything sweet like candy, cookies, or cakes. Some simple sugars, such as those in fruit and milk, are natural. The majority of simple sugars we consume are added to foods (refined sugars). Fructose-Fruit Lactose-Milk Maltose-Grain Sucrose-Sugar Complex carbohydrates (40-50%) are found in whole grain breads, cereals, pasta, rice, and vegetables (peas, beans, potatoes). Fiber Fiber is the tough stringy part of vegetables, fruits, and grains. It is important because it helps move waste through the digestive system. • Prevents Constipation • Reduces Risk of Colon Cancer • Reduces Cholesterol Levels Sources: (Celery, peel of fruit/vegetables, leaves, stems, whole grain breads, nuts, and seeds). Proteins are nutrients that help your body grow and repair itself. Proteins contain 4 calories per gram, so a food with 20 grams of protein provides 80 calories of energy. Approximately 12 to 15% of your total calories should come from protein. We get protein from animals and some plant sources. Complete vs. Incomplete Proteins Foods that contain all 8 of the essential amino acids are known as complete proteins. Complete proteins are found mostly in meat and dairy products. Soy protein is the only complete protein that comes from a plant source. Other proteins, called incomplete proteins , must be eaten in combination with each other to make complete proteins. For example, beans are often eaten with corn tortillas to make a complete protein. Processed meats - such as bacon, sausages and ham - do cause cancer, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Fats Fats, which contain 9 calories per gram (about twice the amount of energy in carbohydrates or proteins), provide energy during sustained exercise. No more than 30% of your total calorie intake should come from fat. Like proteins, fats can be found in both animal and plant sources. Fats are classified as either saturated or unsaturated. Saturated & Unsaturated Fat Saturated fats (limit) come mostly from animal sources, are solid at room temperature. (Bacon, Hamburger Fat, Butter, and Crisco Shortening). Unsaturated fats come mostly from plants such as corn, soybean, olives, and peanuts, are liquid at room temperature. (Olive Oil, Corn Oil, Vegetable Oil). Trans Fats Trans Fats or (trans fatty acids) are created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid. Another name for trans fats is partially hydrogenated oils. Look for them on ingredient lists or on food packages. Trans fats can be found in many foods, but especially in deep fried foods such as french-fries, doughnuts, and baked goods that store on the shelf for long periods of time. Foods like pie crust, pizza dough, pastries, cookies, crackers, and margarine all contain dangerous trans fats. Trans Fats = Danger The dangers of trans fats lie in the effect they have on LDL cholesterol levels. Trans fats increase LDL cholesterol levels while reducing the amount of beneficial HDL cholesterol in your body. This significantly increases your risk of a heart attack. Trans fats are currently thought to cause at least 30,000 premature deaths each year. In addition, experts believe just reducing the amount of trans fats in margarines would prevent 6,300 heart attacks annually. Vitamins Vitamins are classified as "fat-soluble" or "water-soluble." Fat soluble vitamins, which include A, D, E, and K, should be taken at recommended levels to prevent adverse side effects that can occur with taking too much. Water soluble vitamins include B-complex vitamins and vitamin C. Excessive amounts B & C vitamins can be excreted in the urine so adverse side effects are less common when taking water soluble vitamins. Minerals Minerals are nutrients that help regulate cell activities. Twenty-five minerals are needed for proper bodily function. Two common minerals that people often supplement are calcium and iron. Iron is a nutrient that the body needs to help build red blood cells. Foods rich in iron include meat, liver, peas, beans, spinach, whole grains, and eggs. Too much iron in the body (iron overload), can cause serious problems, including liver damage. Calcium helps you develop strong bones and teeth and facilitates muscle contractions. Most individuals do not consume adequate calcium. Despite recommendations for female and male high school students of 1300 mg/day, most students consume only 600 to 800 mg/day. Good sources of calcium include yogurt, skim milk, low-fat cheese, and calcium fortified orange juice, tofu, or soy milk. Green leafy vegetables such as broccoli or spinach also provide calcium. When taking calcium, it is important to avoid drinking caffeinated beverages and soda pop because they can interfere with calcium absorption. Water Water has many important functions including transporting nutrients to your cells, ridding your body of wastes, and regulating body temperature. Your body loses 2 - 3 quarts of water a day through breathing, sweating, and eliminating waste. If you take your body weight, divide it in half, that is how many ounces of water you should drink in a day for optimal health. Example: 140 lb. person should drink 70 oz of water each day. At least 10 (8 oz glasses) is recommended. Fluid intake is critical during exercise because if you become thirsty, you are already slightly dehydrated. You should consume fluids every 15 to 20 minutes during exercise and also after you finish exercising. Replenish with water if possible. For improved nutrition, you should also examine the Food Plate which provides guidelines for proper daily eating. Go to www.choosemyplate.gov/ to do a diet analysis under “Super Tracker”. How many Calories? 1600 calories: primarily sedentary women. 2200 calories: most children, teenage girls, active women, sedentary men. 2800 calories: usually teenage boys, active men, and very active women. How much Fat should I eat? 1,600 calorie diet - Limit fat to 53 grams 2,200 calorie diet - Limit fat to 73 grams 2,800 calorie diet - Limit fat to 93 grams = 69 grams fat Limit the amount of Saturated fat in your diet! Most experts agree that one of the main reasons why so many Americans are over-fat is because of an increase in portion size. French Fries 20 Years Ago 210 Calories 2.4 ounces Today 610 Calories 6.9 ounces Coffee 20 Years Ago 45 calories 8 ounces Today 330 calories 16 ounces Turkey Sandwich Bagel 20 Years Ago Today 20 Years Ago 320 calories 820 calories 140 calories Today 350 calories Texas Double Whopper Calories Saturated fat Fat grams Sodium 1050 26 grams 130% of daily 69 grams 106% of daily 1910 mg 80% of daily Double Quarter Pounder w/Cheese – 760 Calories – 380 From Fat Super Size French Fries – 610 Calories – 261 from Fat Super Size Coke – 410 Calories (76g sugar)-should have less than 32g day Total = 1780 calories Sugar Soft drinks and other sugar-added beverages have overtaken white bread and are now the main source of calories in the average American’s diet. Sugar - The average woman should have 6 teaspoons of sugar per day, and the average man should have only 9 teaspoons per day . On average, American adults eat 22 teaspoons of sugar a day; teens eat 34 teaspoons. Soda The average 12oz can of soda has equivalent of 11 teaspoons of sugar and 150 calories. It is pure sweetener and doesn’t have any balancing (fat/protein)… and you almost never feel “full” drinking sodas so it’s very hard to stop. …Each additional sugar drink consumed per day increases a childs risk of obesity by 60%. 1 to 2 sodas per day increases risk of Type II diabetes by 25%. You should have approximately (32g) of total sugar a day: 12 oz (355 ml) Can Sugars, total: 39g Calories, total: 140 20 oz (590 ml) Bottle Sugars, total: 65g Calories, total: 240 1 Liter (34 oz) Bottle Sugars, total: 108g Calories, total: 400 Diet Soda Many of us may not realize that common artificial sweeteners like aspartame (found in NutraSweet or Equal), saccharin (found in Sweet’N Low) or sucralose (found in Splenda) can actually cause weight gain. They’re also linked to diabetes and some forms of cancers – including cancers of the colon, kidney, and esophagus. Artificial sweeteners are used in many products we eat and drink today. ... It's an organic molecule made from petroleum and is 300 times sweeter than sugar. NBC news just did a study stating that drinking diet soda daily can increase your risk of CV Disease by 61%. Journal of General Internal Medicine, found that older adults who drank diet soda every day were 44 percent more likely to suffer a heart attack. Reduce Soda Intake Sodium Intake Fast food and processed foods are extremely high in sodium. The Dietary Guidelines recommendation for sodium for most individuals is: “less than 2,300 mg/day,” but for individuals with hypertension, African American’s, and middle-aged and older adults, the recommendation is: “no more than 1,500 mg/day.” How Can I Become Healthy? Make good choices Eat organic foods (fruits/vegetables) Limit Fat Intake ( 70 grams) Limit Sugar Intake ( 40 grams) Limit Sodium Intake ( 2300 mg.) Eat a colorful variety of foods Follow Food Plate Read Food Labels Drink at least 10 (8oz) glasses of water/day Exercise Why Organic??? • • • • Pesticides sprayed on fruits and vegetables Hormones put into soil and plants Corn fed beef / chickens / pigs / turkeys Hormones added to animal food, or hormones given to animals via pills or shots Your Health is Your Choice… Be Nutrition Smart!!! Key Vocabulary Calcium is a mineral we need to build strong bones and teeth and facilitates muscle contraction. Carbohydrates provide your body with energy that can be used during exercise. Carbohydrates are divided into simple and complex types. Complete Proteins are foods that contain all 8 of the essential amino acids Complex carbohydrates are found in whole grain breads and vegetables. Fats are either saturated (solid at room temperature, or unsaturated which are liquid at room temperature). Fat soluble vitamins including A, D, E, and K, can be stored in body fat so intake should be closely regulated. Fiber is the tough stringy part of vegetables, fruits, and grains. Food Pyramid is the pyramid that provides guidelines for eating from the 5 basic food groups. Incomplete Proteins are those proteins, mostly from plant sources, that must be eaten in combination with each other. Key Vocabulary Cont. Nutrients are (food substances) that are required for the growth and maintenance of your cells. Proteins are nutrients that help your body grow and repair itself. Saturated fats come mostly from animal sources, are solid at room temperature. Simple carbohydrates are found in fruit, molasses, honey, and anything sweet like candy, cookies, or cakes. Sodium is a mineral we need and should consume less than 2300 mg daily. Sugar intake for the average woman should be 6 teaspoons per day, and the average man should have only 9 teaspoons per day . Trans Fats or (trans fatty acids) are created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid. Unsaturated fats come mostly from plants such as corn, soybean, olives, and peanuts, are liquid at room temperature. Water has many important functions including transporting nutrients to your cells, ridding your body of wastes, and regulating body temperature. Water soluble vitamins including B-complex vitamins and vitamin C, can be excreted in the urine when taken to excess.