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Transcript
NUTRITION
Fitness for Life
OBJECTIVE:
OBJECTIVES FOR THIS UNIT:
Students will:
Students will:
1) List the 6 nutrients.
2) Describe the caloric value of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
3) Describe the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats and name
some examples of each.
4) Understand the difference between complete and incomplete proteins and
name some examples of each.
5) Understand the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates and
name some examples of each.
6) Describe the needs (% of total calories) of active individuals.
7) Describe the food pyramid, the five major food groups contained within, and
the number of recommended servings in each food group.
8) Develop the skills needed to effectively read food labels.
9) Perform and evaluate a personal nutrition analysis.
Nutrition
The heavy toll of diet-related chronic diseases – From 2010 US Dietary Guidelines
cardiovascular disease
• 81.1 million Americans—37 percent of the population—have cardiovascular disease. Major risk factors include high levels
of blood cholesterol and other lipids, type 2 diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), metabolic syndrome, overweight
and obesity, physical inactivity, and tobacco use.
• 16 percent of the U.S. adult population has high total blood cholesterol.
hypertension
• 74.5 million Americans—34 percent of U.S. adults—have hypertension.
• Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, and kidney disease.
• Dietary factors that increase blood pressure include excessive sodium and insufficient potassium intake, overweight and
obesity, and excess alcohol consumption.
• 36 percent of American adults have prehypertension—blood pressure numbers that are higher than normal, but not yet in
the hypertension range.
diabetes
• Nearly 24 million people—almost 11 percent of the population—ages 20 years and older have diabetes. The vast majority
of cases are type 2 diabetes, which is heavily influenced by diet and physical activity.
• About 78 million Americans—35 percent of the U.S. adult population ages 20 years or older—have pre-diabetes. Prediabetes (also called impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose) means that blood glucose levels are higher
than normal, but not high enough to be called diabetes.
cancer
• Almost one in two men and women—approximately 41 percent of the population—will be diagnosed with cancer during
their lifetime.
• Dietary factors are associated with risk of some types of cancer, including breast (post-menopausal), endometrial, colon,
kidney, mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus.
osteoporosis
• One out of every two women and one in four men ages 50 years and older will have an osteoporosis-related fracture in
their lifetime.
• About 85 to 90 percent of adult bone mass is acquired by the age of 18 in girls and the age 20 in boys. Adequate nutrition
and regular participation in physical activity are important factors in achieving and maintaining optimal bone mass.
The 2015 Dietary Guidelines put forth,
among other things, that the optimal diet is
one that limits red and processed meats,
refined sugar, sodium and saturated fat.
It includes consumption of local foods,
fruits and vegetables, whole grains,
legumes, low fat dairy, and dismisses past
recommendations on limiting cholesterol in
the diet except for those people diagnosed
with diabetes, certain other health issues,
or already on cholesterol lowering
medication.
Scientists have identified 45-50 different nutrients (food
substances) that are required for the growth and maintenance of
your cells. These have been divided into 6 groups:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Vitamins
Minerals
Water
Provide the body energy
Carbohydrates
•
•
•
•
Carbohydrates provide your body with
energy that can be used during exercise.
Carbohydrates contain (4 calories per gram), so a
food with 10 grams of carbohydrate provides 40
calories of energy.
55% to 60% of your total calories should come
from carbohydrates.
15% or less should come from simple carbohydrates.
40-50% should come from complex carbohydrates.
Simple vs. Complex
Carbohydrates
Simple carbohydrates (15% or less) are found in fruit,
molasses, honey, and anything sweet like candy, cookies, or
cakes. Some simple sugars, such as those in fruit and milk,
are natural. The majority of simple sugars we consume are
added to foods (refined sugars).
Fructose-Fruit
Lactose-Milk
Maltose-Grain
Sucrose-Sugar
Complex carbohydrates (40-50%) are found in whole grain
breads, cereals, pasta, rice, and vegetables
(peas, beans, potatoes).
Fiber
Fiber is the tough stringy part of vegetables, fruits, and grains.
It is important because it helps move waste through the
digestive system.
• Prevents Constipation
• Reduces Risk of Colon Cancer
• Reduces Cholesterol Levels
Sources: (Celery, peel of fruit/vegetables, leaves, stems,
whole grain breads, nuts, and seeds).
Proteins are nutrients that help your body grow and
repair itself. Proteins contain 4 calories per gram, so a
food with 20 grams of protein provides 80 calories of
energy. Approximately 12 to 15% of your total calories
should come from protein. We get protein from animals
and some plant sources.
Complete vs. Incomplete
Proteins
Foods that contain all 8 of the essential amino acids are known
as complete proteins. Complete proteins are found mostly in meat
and dairy products. Soy protein is the only complete protein that
comes from a plant source.
Other proteins, called incomplete proteins , must be eaten in
combination with each other to make complete proteins. For
example, beans are often eaten with corn tortillas to make a
complete protein.
Processed meats - such as bacon, sausages and
ham - do cause cancer, according to the World
Health Organization (WHO).
Fats
Fats, which contain 9 calories per gram (about twice the
amount of energy in carbohydrates or proteins), provide
energy during sustained exercise. No more than 30% of your
total calorie intake should come from fat. Like proteins, fats
can be found in both animal and plant sources. Fats are
classified as either saturated or unsaturated.
Saturated & Unsaturated Fat
Saturated fats (limit) come mostly from animal
sources, are solid at room temperature.
(Bacon, Hamburger Fat, Butter, and Crisco
Shortening).
Unsaturated fats come mostly
from plants such as corn, soybean, olives,
and peanuts, are liquid at room
temperature.
(Olive Oil, Corn Oil, Vegetable Oil).
Trans Fats
Trans Fats or (trans fatty acids) are created in an
industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid
vegetable oils to make them more solid. Another
name for trans fats is partially hydrogenated oils.
Look for them on ingredient lists or on food
packages.
Trans fats can be found in many foods, but
especially in deep fried foods such as french-fries,
doughnuts, and baked goods that store on the
shelf for long periods of time. Foods like pie
crust, pizza dough, pastries, cookies, crackers, and
margarine all contain dangerous trans fats.
Trans Fats = Danger
The dangers of trans fats lie in the effect
they have on LDL cholesterol levels. Trans
fats increase LDL cholesterol levels while
reducing the amount of beneficial HDL
cholesterol in your body. This significantly
increases your risk of a heart attack.
Trans fats are currently thought to cause at
least 30,000 premature deaths each year. In
addition, experts believe just reducing the
amount of trans fats in margarines would
prevent 6,300 heart attacks annually.
Vitamins
Vitamins are classified as "fat-soluble" or "water-soluble."
Fat soluble vitamins, which include A, D, E, and K, should be
taken at recommended levels to prevent adverse side effects
that can occur with taking too much.
Water soluble vitamins include B-complex vitamins and
vitamin C. Excessive amounts B & C vitamins can be excreted
in the urine so adverse side effects are less common when
taking water soluble vitamins.
Minerals
Minerals are nutrients that help regulate cell
activities. Twenty-five minerals are needed
for proper bodily function. Two common
minerals that people often supplement are
calcium and iron.
Iron is a nutrient that the body needs to
help build red blood cells. Foods rich in iron
include meat, liver, peas, beans, spinach,
whole grains, and eggs. Too much iron in the
body (iron overload), can cause serious
problems, including liver damage.
Calcium helps you develop strong bones and teeth and
facilitates muscle contractions. Most individuals do not
consume adequate calcium. Despite recommendations for
female and male high school students of 1300 mg/day, most
students consume only 600 to 800 mg/day. Good sources of
calcium include yogurt, skim milk, low-fat cheese, and
calcium fortified orange juice, tofu, or soy milk. Green leafy
vegetables such as broccoli or spinach also provide calcium.
When taking calcium, it is important to avoid drinking
caffeinated beverages and soda pop because they can interfere
with calcium absorption.
Water
Water has many important functions including
transporting nutrients to your cells, ridding your body of
wastes, and regulating body temperature. Your body loses
2 - 3 quarts of water a day through breathing, sweating,
and eliminating waste.
If you take your body weight, divide it in half, that is how
many ounces of water you should drink in a day for optimal
health.
Example: 140 lb. person should drink 70 oz of water each day.
At least 10 (8 oz glasses) is recommended.
Fluid intake is critical
during exercise because
if you become thirsty, you
are already slightly
dehydrated.
You should consume fluids
every 15 to 20 minutes
during exercise and also
after you finish exercising.
Replenish with water if
possible.
For improved nutrition, you should also examine the
Food Plate which provides guidelines for proper
daily eating. Go to www.choosemyplate.gov/ to do a
diet analysis under “Super Tracker”.
How many Calories?
1600 calories: primarily sedentary women.
2200 calories: most children, teenage girls, active women,
sedentary men.
2800 calories: usually teenage boys, active men, and very
active women.
How much Fat should I eat?
1,600 calorie diet - Limit fat to 53 grams
2,200 calorie diet - Limit fat to 73 grams
2,800 calorie diet - Limit fat to 93 grams
= 69 grams fat
Limit the amount of Saturated fat in your diet!
Most experts agree that one of the main reasons why so
many Americans are over-fat is because of an increase in
portion size.
French Fries
20 Years Ago
210 Calories
2.4 ounces
Today
610 Calories
6.9 ounces
Coffee
20 Years Ago
45 calories
8 ounces
Today
330 calories
16 ounces
Turkey
Sandwich
Bagel
20 Years Ago
Today
20 Years Ago
320 calories
820 calories
140 calories
Today
350 calories
Texas Double Whopper
Calories
Saturated fat
Fat grams
Sodium
1050
26 grams
130% of
daily
69 grams
106% of
daily
1910 mg
80% of daily
Double Quarter Pounder w/Cheese – 760 Calories – 380 From Fat
Super Size French Fries – 610 Calories – 261 from Fat
Super Size Coke – 410 Calories (76g sugar)-should have less than 32g day
Total = 1780 calories
Sugar
Soft drinks and other sugar-added beverages have
overtaken white bread and are now the main source of
calories in the average American’s diet.
Sugar - The average woman should have 6 teaspoons
of sugar per day, and the average man should have
only 9 teaspoons per day .
On average, American adults eat 22 teaspoons of
sugar a day; teens eat 34 teaspoons.
Soda
The average 12oz can of soda has
equivalent of 11 teaspoons of sugar
and 150 calories. It is pure sweetener
and doesn’t have any balancing
(fat/protein)… and you almost never
feel “full” drinking sodas so it’s very
hard to stop.
…Each additional sugar drink
consumed per day increases a childs
risk of obesity by 60%.
1 to 2 sodas per day increases risk of
Type II diabetes by 25%.
You should have
approximately (32g) of total
sugar a day:
12 oz (355 ml) Can
Sugars, total: 39g
Calories, total: 140
20 oz (590 ml) Bottle
Sugars, total: 65g
Calories, total: 240
1 Liter (34 oz) Bottle
Sugars, total: 108g
Calories, total: 400
Diet Soda
Many of us may not realize that common
artificial sweeteners like aspartame (found in
NutraSweet or Equal), saccharin (found in
Sweet’N Low) or sucralose (found in Splenda) can
actually cause weight gain. They’re also linked to
diabetes and some forms of cancers – including
cancers of the colon, kidney, and esophagus.
Artificial sweeteners are used in many products we eat
and drink today. ... It's an organic molecule made from
petroleum and is 300 times sweeter than sugar. NBC
news just did a study stating that drinking diet soda
daily can increase your risk of CV Disease by 61%.
Journal of General Internal Medicine, found that older
adults who drank diet soda every day were 44 percent
more likely to suffer a heart attack.
Reduce Soda Intake
Sodium Intake
Fast food and processed foods are
extremely high in sodium. The
Dietary Guidelines
recommendation for sodium for
most individuals is:
“less than 2,300 mg/day,”
but for individuals with
hypertension, African American’s,
and middle-aged and older adults,
the recommendation is:
“no more than 1,500 mg/day.”
How Can I Become Healthy?
Make good choices
Eat organic foods (fruits/vegetables)
Limit Fat Intake ( 70 grams)
Limit Sugar Intake ( 40 grams)
Limit Sodium Intake ( 2300 mg.)
Eat a colorful variety of foods
Follow Food Plate
Read Food Labels
Drink at least 10 (8oz) glasses of water/day
Exercise
Why Organic???
•
•
•
•
Pesticides sprayed on fruits and vegetables
Hormones put into soil and plants
Corn fed beef / chickens / pigs / turkeys
Hormones added to animal food, or hormones given to
animals via pills or shots
Your Health is Your Choice…
Be Nutrition Smart!!!
Key Vocabulary
Calcium is a mineral we need to build strong bones and teeth and facilitates muscle
contraction.
Carbohydrates provide your body with energy that can be used during exercise.
Carbohydrates are divided into simple and complex types.
Complete Proteins are foods that contain all 8 of the essential amino acids
Complex carbohydrates are found in whole grain breads and vegetables.
Fats are either saturated (solid at room temperature, or unsaturated which are liquid at
room temperature).
Fat soluble vitamins including A, D, E, and K, can be stored in body fat so intake
should be closely regulated.
Fiber is the tough stringy part of vegetables, fruits, and grains.
Food Pyramid is the pyramid that provides guidelines for eating from the 5 basic food
groups.
Incomplete Proteins are those proteins, mostly from plant sources, that must be eaten
in combination with each other.
Key Vocabulary Cont.
Nutrients are (food substances) that are required for the growth and maintenance of
your cells.
Proteins are nutrients that help your body grow and repair itself.
Saturated fats come mostly from animal sources, are solid at room temperature.
Simple carbohydrates are found in fruit, molasses, honey, and anything sweet like
candy, cookies, or cakes.
Sodium is a mineral we need and should consume less than 2300 mg daily.
Sugar intake for the average woman should be 6 teaspoons per day, and the average
man should have only 9 teaspoons per day .
Trans Fats or (trans fatty acids) are created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen
to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid.
Unsaturated fats come mostly from plants such as corn, soybean, olives, and peanuts,
are liquid at room temperature.
Water has many important functions including transporting nutrients to your cells,
ridding your body of wastes, and regulating body temperature.
Water soluble vitamins including B-complex vitamins and vitamin C, can be excreted
in the urine when taken to excess.