Download 6 Classes of Nutrients

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
6 Classes of Nutrients
6 Nutrients
•
•
•
•
•
•
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats (Lipids)
Vitamins
Minerals
Water
These 6
nutrients
you body
NEEDS to
function
properly!!!
Carbohydrates
• What are they?
– Starches & sugars found in foods
• What is their function?
– Body’s preferred source of energy
• What if I don’t get enough?
– Decreased energy
• If I get too much?
– Can be stored as fat
Types of Carbohydrates
• SIMPLE
– Sugars
– Provide quick
energy
– Sweet to the taste:
honey, fruit, candy,
etc.
• COMPLEX
– Starches/fibers
– Provide long-lasting
energy
– Ex) potatoes, pasta,
bread, etc.
Carbohydrates in your
diet …
• Carbohydrates should account for 45-65%
of your daily diet.
• 1 gram of carbohydrates = 4 calories of
energy.
Proteins
• What are they?
– Nutrients which build & maintain body tissues
• What is their function?
– Build & maintain: muscle, skin, hair, nails, etc.
• What if I don’t get enough?
– Decrease in muscle & tissue maintenance
• If I get too much?
- Stored as fat
Types of Protein
• Complete
– Contain all essential
amino acids
– Come from
animal/soy
products
– Complete proteins
are what your body
wants!
• Incomplete
– Lack some amino
acids
– Can combine to
make complete
proteins
Amino Acids are the
building blocks of proteins!
Proteins in your diet …
• Proteins should account for 10-35% of
your daily diet.
• 1 gram of protein = 4 calories of energy.
Fats (Lipids)
• What are the main functions of fats?
–
–
–
-
Provides energy
Cushions organs
Carries vitamins (A,D,E,K)
Insulator
Provides taste
• What happens if I get too much fat?
- Weight gain
- Increased risk of heart disease
Cholesterol
• A lipid (fat) found in all animal
tissues
• Cholesterol makes vitamin D, cell
membranes, and hormones
• Types of cholesterol:
– LDL = “bad” cholesterol
– HDL = “good” cholesterol
Types of Fats
• Saturated
– Fats coming from
animal products
– Solid at room
temperature
– Increase risk of
heart disease
• Unsaturated
– Fats coming from
plant products
– Liquid at room
temperature (oils)
– Better for your
heart than
saturated fats
Trans Fat = unsaturated fatty acids produced
when vegetable oil is processed in to margarine
and shortening … increase risk of heart disease.
**Often in restaurant foods!
Fats in your diet …
• Fats should account for 25-35% of your
daily diet.
• 1 gram of fat = 9 calories of energy.
Vitamins
• What are they?
– Compounds needed in small amounts to regulate
body processes and allow growth
• What is their function?
– Help with digestion, absorption, & metabolism
• Each vitamin is needed and provides a
specific function
Types of Vitamins
• Water Soluble
– Dissolve in water
– Needed for energy
release
– Too many water
soluble vitamins are
excreted in urine
Vitamins do
NOT provide
energy!!!
• Fat Soluble
– Dissolve in fat
– Remain in the body
for long periods of
time
– 4 fat-soluble
vitamins: A,D,E,K
– Too many can lead
to a toxic build up –
stored in fatty
tissues, liver, &
kidneys
Minerals
• What are they?
– Inorganic compounds (things that come from
the earth) that are needed in small amounts
• What is their function?
– Regulate body processes
• Ex) bone formation
• Each mineral is needed!
• Minerals do NOT provide energy!!!
Water
• What are the main functions of water?
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Transports nutrients
Carries away wastes
Moistens eyes, mouth, nose; hydrates skin
Forms main component of body fluids
Acts as an insulator
Protects against heat exhaustion
Lubricates joints
Helps with digestion
Dehydration
• Individuals should drink 8+ glasses of
water/day to prevent dehydration
• Signs of dehydration:
– Thirst, dry mouth, flushed skin, fatigue,
headache, impaired physical
performance, increased body temp,
dizziness, weakness, muscle spasms,
delirium, poor blood circulation, failing
kidney function, and possibly death
Water
• 60% of your body is water!!!
• Your daily water intake must balance
your body’s use
• Caffeine actually dehydrates you – it
increases the amount of water
excreted in urine
• Water does NOT provide energy!