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He also notes Belo’s shortcomings in understanding dadia (Bln.), or ancestral groups. In
1936, he argues, Belo “stumbled upon a self-conscious ancestor group” but “hedged in by
analytical injunctions of her day to report only typical microcosmic ‘Jonesville’ of family life, she
failed to generalize the principles of dadia formation or to appreciate the importance of their
optional nature.” He argued that the Geertzes, on the other hand, researching several decades
later, were able to recognize the importance of this system and would thoroughly present this
understanding, with vigorous analysis, in several of their publications.
J. Stephen Lansing started his fieldwork in Bali in 1971. The book Evil in the Morning of
the World was the result of his earliest fieldwork. He was very interested in systems, such as
irrigation systems, within Bali and he turned to the work and the assistance of Cifford Geertz
while researching. The work of Geertz, along with Belo, and Bateson and Mead are cited and
analyzed extensively throughout this first book, as well as the work of Dutch scholar, Christiaan
Hookyas, who had studied Balinese religion and its symbols extensively. (1964, 1973)
Lansing published The Three Worlds of Bali in 1983, which takes a detailed look at
Balinese religion and customs, and how religious beliefs influence systems of organization, such
as the temple and irrigation systems. He would take a further look in the 1980s at how temple
and irrigation systems were intimately connected through religion. His ground-breaking study
of the subak irrigation system in Bali, a study that was discussed in the 1987 article “Balinese
‘Water Temples’ and the Management of Irrigation,” and the 1995 book The Balinese.
In the 1970s, notes Lansing, the Green Revolution had made its way to Bali. It was a
project, started in the Philippines, to upgrade irrigation systems throughout Southeast Asia and,
ideally, increase crop production. The Balinese subak system, which was based on centuries old