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Transcript
GRADES 3–4
OVERVIEW
SUN, MOON, AND STARS
CONTENT GOALS
The Sun, Moon, and Stars Module consists of three sequential
investigations, each designed to introduce students to objects we see
in the sky. Through outdoor observations made during the day and at
night, active simulations, readings, videos, and discussions, students
study the Sun, Moon, and stars to learn that these objects move in
regular and predictable patterns that can be observed, recorded, and
analyzed.
FOSS EXPECTS STUDENTS TO
•
Observe and record how the Sun, Earth’s star, rises in the
east and sets in the west in a predictable pattern.
•
Learn that Earth rotates on its axis, causing day and night.
Day happens when a location on Earth is facing toward the
Sun, and night happens when a location is facing away from
the Sun.
•
Understand that the exact path the Sun takes in the sky
varies by season.
•
Understand that shadows are the areas of darkness created
when an opaque object blocks light and that shadows on
Earth depend on the position of the Sun in the sky.
OVERVIEW CONTENTS
Content Goals
1
FOSS and National Standards
2
Sun, Moon, and Stars Module
Matrix
4
Science Background
6
FOSS Components
8
Learn that Earth is one of several planets that orbit the Sun
in the solar system.
The FOSS Teacher Guide
Organization
10
Learn that the Moon orbits Earth and can appear in the sky
during both day and night; observe and record how the
Moon changes its appearance or phase in a regular pattern
over 4 weeks.
The FOSS Investigation
Organization
11
Science Notebooks
16
•
Learn how useful telescopes are in studying the solar
system, as they make distant objects look closer and larger.
Working in Collaborative
Groups
19
•
Learn that stars are suns positioned at great distances from
Earth and form groups called constellations that appear to
move together across the sky at night.
FOSS for All Students
20
Connecting the Experience
22
Safety in the Classroom and
Outdoors
24
Scheduling the Module
25
Scope and Sequence
28
•
•
•
Use tools to collect and analyze data to develop logical
conclusions about the movements of objects in the sky.
SUN, MOON, AND STARS
1012437_01_Overview.indd 1
FOSS Instructional Pedagogies 12
1
1/17/08 3:45:41 PM
SUN, MOON, AND STARS OVERVIEW
FOSS AND NATIONAL STANDARDS
The Sun, Moon, and Stars Module emphasizes the development of
observation and description skills and building explanations based
on experience. This module supports the following National Science
Education Standards.*
SCIENCE AS INQUIRY
Develop students’ abilities to do scientific inquiry.
•
Ask and answer questions about objects and events in the
environment.
•
Use data to construct reasonable explanations.
•
Communicate investigations and explanations.
CONTENT: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE
“By observing the day and
night sky regularly, children in
grades K–4 will learn to identify
sequences of changes and to look
for patterns in these changes. As
they observe changes, such as the
movement of an object’s shadow
during the course of a day, and
the positions of the sun and the
moon, they will find patterns
in these movements. They can
draw the Moon’s shape for each
evening on a calendar and then
determine the pattern in the
shapes over several weeks. These
understandings should be confined
to observations.” †
Develop students’ understanding of objects in the sky.
•
The sun, moon, stars, clouds, birds, and airplanes all have
properties, locations, and movements that can be observed
and described.
Develop students’ understanding of changes in the earth and sky.
•
Objects in the sky have patterns of movement. The sun, for
example, appears to move across the sky in the same way
every day, but its path changes slowly over the seasons. The
moon moves across the sky on a daily basis much like the
sun. The observable shape of the moon changes from day to
day in a cycle that lasts about a month.
*National Science Education Standards (Washington, DC: National
Academy Press, 1996).
†National
Science Education Standards (Washington, DC: National
Academy Press, 1996), page 130.
2
1012437_01_Overview.indd 2
FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM
1/17/08 3:45:41 PM
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Develop students’ understanding about science and technology.
•
People have always had questions about their world.
Science is one way of answering questions and explaining
the natural world.
•
Women and men of all ages, backgrounds, and groups
engage in a variety of scientific and technological work.
•
Tools help scientists make better observations,
measurements, and equipment for investigations. They help
scientists see, measure, and do things that they could not
otherwise see, measure, and do.
HISTORY OF SCIENCE
Develop students’ understanding of science as a human endeavor.
•
Science and technology have been practiced by people for a
long time.
•
Many people choose science as a career and devote their
entire lives to studying it. Many people derive great
pleasure from doing science.
“Students can learn some things
about scientific inquiry and
significant people from history, which
will provide a foundation for the
development of sophisticated ideas
related to the history and nature
of science that will be developed
in later years. Through the use
of short stories, films, videos, and
other examples, elementary teachers
can introduce interesting historical
examples of women and men
(including minorities and people
with disabilities) who have made
contributions to science.Ӡ
†National
Science Education Standards (Washington, DC: National
Academy Press, 1996), page 141.
SUN, MOON, AND STARS
1012437_01_Overview.indd 3
3
1/17/08 3:45:42 PM
SUN, MOON, AND STARS MODULE MATRIX
SYNOPSIS
1. THE SUN
Students use a compass to study
the position of the Sun in the sky at
different times during the day. They
observe the Sun’s position, record,
make predictions, and make new
observations later in the day to check
their predictions.
Students explore shadows created by
blocking sunlight on the schoolyard.
They trace shadows, predict where
shadows will be later in the day, and
return to check their predictions.
Students read about the changing
position of the Sun in the sky.
2. THE MOON
Students observe the Moon in the
sky during the day and night for
a period of 4 weeks. They record
the appearance of the Moon and
analyze the data to discover a
sequence of changes, the lunar
cycle. Students learn the names
of the Moon phases and how
to predict the next step in the
sequence. Concepts are reinforced
through simulations, readings, a
video, and writing.
3. THE STARS
Students look to the night sky to
observe the stars and are introduced
to the constellations people have
named. Students engage in
simulations to understand why the
stars appear to move across the sky
during the night and why different
stars can be seen from Earth at
different seasons.
Students read about the role of
telescopes in astronomy research
and about star scientists.
4
1012437_01_Overview.indd 4
SCIENCE CONTENT
THINKING PROCESSES
• Day happens when a location on
Earth is facing toward the Sun; night
happens when a location on Earth is
facing away from the Sun.
• Observe and record the path the
Sun takes in the sky.
• Observe and collect shadow data
at different times of day.
• The Sun appears to rise in the east and
set in the west every day.
• Analyze shadow data to develop
an explanation about the Sun’s
daily movements.
• A compass is a tool used to determine
directions (east, west, north, south).
• Shadows are the areas of darkness
created when an opaque object blocks
light.
• Use shadow data to predict the
position of the Sun in the sky.
• Use models to develop
explanations.
• The shapes of shadows change over a
day and depend on the position of the
Sun in the sky.
• Communicate observations.
• The exact path the Sun takes in the sky
varies by season.
• Objects in the night sky include the
Moon, stars, and other planets.
• Earth is one of several planets that
orbit the Sun in the solar system.
• The Moon orbits Earth.
• The Moon can appear in the sky
during both night and day.
• The Moon changes its appearance,
or phase, in a regular pattern over 4
weeks.
• Observe and record changes in
the Moon’s appearance over a
month.
• Analyze observations to discover
the sequence of changes that
occur during the Moon’s phase
cycle.
• Use models to develop
explanations.
• Moon phase is the portion of the
illuminated half of the Moon that is
visible from Earth.
• Learn the vocabulary associated
with Moon phases.
• Stars are suns positioned at great
distances from Earth.
• Identify several constellations
as stable, predictable patterns of
stars.
• Groups of stars form patterns called
constellations.
• Stars (constellations) appear to move
together across the night sky because
Earth rotates.
• Use models and simulations to
develop explanations.
• Stars can be observed from Earth’s
surface only at night.
• Different constellations can be seen
during different seasons because
Earth revolves around the Sun.
• Stars are different sizes and have
different brightnesses.
• Telescopes make distant objects look
closer and larger.
FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM
1/17/08 3:45:42 PM
READING AND WRITING
EXTENSIONS
ASSESSMENT
• Sunrise and Sunset
Math Extensions
Survey
• Changing Shadows
• Problem of the week.
Embedded Assessment
• Summary: The Sun
• Continue Sun tracking.
• Science Notebook: Students record
and predict the movement of the
Sun. They respond to questions on
the Sun and shadows.
• Find a schoolyard gnomon.
• Science Notebook
Benchmark Assessment
Language Extension
• Describe shadows.
• I-Check 1
Art Extension
• Create silhouettes.
• The Night Sky
Math Extensions
Embedded Assessment
• Changing Moon
• Problem of the week.
• Science Notebook
• Summary: The Moon
• Continue using Moon Calendar.
• Science Notebook: Students
record their observations of the
Moon over time. They show their
understanding of the lunar cycle.
• Investigate eclipses.
Benchmark Assessment
• I-Check 2
Language Extension
• Find out about the Apollo
program.
Social Studies Extension
• Read Moon myths and legends.
• Stargazing
Math Extension
Embedded Assessment
• Looking through Telescopes
• Problem of the week.
• Science Notebook
• Star Scientists
Science Extensions
Benchmark Assessment
• Use star maps.
• I-Check 3
• Summary: The Stars
• Science Notebook: Students explain
the apparent motion of the stars
across the night sky.
• Use other online star resources.
• Explore star brightness.
Posttest
Language Extension
• Write constellation stories.
Social Studies Extension
• Read constellation myths and
legends.
SUN, MOON, AND STARS
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5
1/31/08 11:37:13 AM