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4/12/16 Disclosures
Daily Fuel: Hype, Hope or Truth?
I declare no conflicts of interest, real or apparent, and no
financial interests in any company, product, or service
mentioned in this program, including grants, employment,
gifts, stock holdings, and honoraria.
Cameron Gordon, PharmD, MBA
PGY1 Community Pharmacy Resident
Smith’s Food & Drug Stores
[email protected]
Daily Fuel: Hype, Hope or Truth?
What are some examples of machines or systems engineered with the highest level
of precision and efficiency?
Learning Objectives:
Define and discuss the primary macronutrients and micronutrients and their
role in maintaining a healthy, balanced diet
Classify vitamins and minerals, recognize their sources and function, and
describe the syndromes/complications associated with their deficiency or
Compare current recommended daily values of nutrients against the average
American diet
Explore the hype regarding multivitamins and supplements and compare to
evidence from clinical trials
Assess the need for nutrient supplementation and make appropriate
recommendations based on patient cases
Introduction – Fuel
—  The human body – an amazing machine
The Hype
—  Hype regarding daily supplements
—  Incredibly complicated, high efficiency
—  Direct to consumer ads
—  Requires correct fuel
—  Other media attention
—  Nutrients
—  Hype regarding daily nutrition
—  Macro vs micro
—  Celebrity/fad diets
—  Definition, sources
—  More direct to consumer ads
—  Requirements, roles in physiology
—  “Cool” or trendy
—  Typical American diet
—  Social media “thinspiration”
—  What happens if deficient?
1 4/12/16 Macronutrients1
The Truth
—  Reconcile the hype…
—  Fuel required by the amazing machine
—  Who, what, when, why supplementation would be actually needed
—  AKA “sugars”
—  Recommended intake (RI): 45-65% total caloric intake
—  Macronutrients
—  Consumed in largest quantities, provide bulk energy
—  Carbohydrates, fats, and protein
—  Complex > simple, whole grain > refined
—  Low “glycemic index” (fruits, vegetables) > high glycemic
index (pizza, rice, pancakes)
—  Added sugars (sweetened beverages, processed foods)
—  Micronutrients
—  Needed in very small amounts, provided from diet
should not exceed 10% of total calories
—  Includes vitamins and several minerals
—  RI: 10-35% of total caloric intake
—  Water-soluble
—  Mainly the variety of B vitamins and Vitamin C
—  Protein-rich: fish, lean meat, eggs, beans, nuts
—  Avoid/limit: sources w/ high trans/saturated fats (red meat)
—  RI: 20-35% of total caloric intake
—  Type of fat more important than amount
—  Trans/saturated à heart disease
—  Unsaturated =
(See handout)
—  Fat-soluble
—  Vitamins A, D, K, and E
—  Calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, etc.
Vitamins: H2O-Soluble
—  B1 (Thiamine)
—  B2 (Riboflavin)
—  B3 (Niacin)
—  B5 (Panthotenic acid)
(See handout)
Vitamins: Fat-Soluble
Vitamin A (Retinol)
Vitamin D
—  D2 (Ergocalciferol)
—  D3 (Cholecalciferol)
—  B6 (Pyridoxine)
—  B9 (Folate, aka Folic Acid)
—  B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Vitamin K (Phytonadione, brand = Mephyton)
Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
2 4/12/16 Minerals
(See handout)
Fuel: Finding the Balance
2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans1
—  Focuses more on “big picture”
—  Five general recommendations
Follow a healthy eating plan across the lifespan (all
choices add up)
Focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount
Limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats and
reduce sodium intake
Shift to healthier food and beverage choices
Support healthy eating patterns for all
Guidelines also recommend following Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans
Fuel: Finding the Balance
2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans1
Average American Diet
Adherence of Americans ages 2 years and older to 2010 guidelines1:
—  Key recommendations
Follow a healthy eating pattern, including:
Vegetables from all subgroups – dark green, red and orange, legumes,
starchy, other
Fruits (especially whole fruits), grains (at least half = whole grains),
and oils
Fat-free or low fat dairy (milk, yogurt, cheese, soy)
Variety of protein foods – seafood, lean meats/poultry, eggs, legumes,
nuts, seeds, soy
A healthy eating pattern limits:
Saturated and trans fats (< 10% total daily calories)
Added sugars (< 10% total daily calories)
2,300mg or less of sodium
Average American Physical Activity
Percentage of adults meeting Physical Activity Guidelines1:
Making a Change
Fast food3
—  Excessive energy (calories)…“volume” = “value”
—  Excess total saturated fats, cholesterol, sodium
—  Deficient in Vit A, Vit C, folic acid, fiber, calcium
—  Fast food associated w/ other bad nutritional habits
—  Eliminating the problem – not realistic
Drive-Thru Diet
Energy expenditure
Can also tip the balance in other direction
—  “Thinspiration”, other trends to avoid “fattening” foods
—  2x as likely: calcium, zinc, selenium, iron deficiency anemia3
3 4/12/16 Supplements
Hype and advertisements
—  Claims
—  Popular belief
—  Cardiovascular health
—  Cancer prevention
—  Osteoporosis
—  Immunity
—  Others
Supplementation – Summary4
Average adult w/ balanced diet
—  No evidence for benefit or harm in daily multivitamins/minerals
Special populations: ↑ risk of deficiency
—  Poor intake (poverty, elderly, alcoholics, restrictive diets, e.g. vegan)
—  Malabsorption (Celiac, Crohn’s, short bowel, elderly, gastric bypass)
—  Abnormal losses (hemodialysis, diarrhea)
—  Abnormal metabolism (genetic, alcoholism)
—  Inadequate synthesis (vitamin D – homebound, little exposed skin)
Special circumstances
—  Pregnant or trying to conceive: ↑ folic acid
—  Elderly: calcium + vitamin D
—  Children in developing countries: vitamin A
Beware toxicities
“Knowledge is like paint. It does no good
until it’s applied” -Unknown
“Education is the kindling of a flame, not
the filling of a vessel” -Socrates
Fats should typically comprise how much of an adults total
daily caloric intake?
Women who are pregnant or trying to conceive should
increase their intake of which specific micronutrient?
A.  45-65%
A.  Retinol
C.  10-35%
D.  20-35%
B.  Folic acid
“Never argue with stupid people. They will drag you
down to their level then beat you with experience”
-Mark Twain
C.  Ascorbic acid
D.  Ergocalciferol
What happens if you take too much vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)?
A.  Nothing – it’s totally fine
B.  You feel really strong
C.  You get better looking and your jokes get funnier
D.  You risk severe sensory and peripheral neuropathy
Google images, 2016
Cameron Gordon, PharmD, MBA
PGY1 Community Pharmacy Resident
Smith’s Food & Drug Stores
[email protected]
4 4/12/16 References
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture.
2015 – 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition. December 2015.
Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart
disease in women. N Engl J Med 1997; 337:1491.
Briefel RR, Johnson CL. Secular trends in dietary intake in the United States. Annu Rev
Nutr 2004; 24:401.
Moyer VA, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Vitamin, mineral, and multivitamin
supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: U.S.
Preventive services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 2014;