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CHAPTER 14: NUTRIENTS THAT PROMOTE GROWTH and REGULATE BODY FUNCTIONS (Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals, and Water) Answers to Review Questions ANSWERS TO CHAPTER REVIEW A. By Yourself 1. Water is a major component of all body cells. It is required for replacement, chemical reactions, transporting nutrients throughout the body, and the formation of body fluids/secretions such as saliva, hormones, and perspiration. 2. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble vitamins. Excess intake of these vitamins (in supplemental form) can lead to toxicity because fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body. 3. Fruits and vegetables are high in folacin. Many food products, such as cereals, breads, and crackers are now fortified with this important B vitamin. Folacin deficiency has been linked to a number of birth defects affecting fetal brain and spinal cord development (i.e., spina bifida). 4. Alternative non-meat protein sources include foods such as tempeh, tofu, soy milk, eggs, dried beans (e.g., navy, chick pea, soy, black, kidney), legumes (e.g., lentils, peanuts, peas), dairy (i.e., cheese, milk), seeds and nuts (e.g., pumpkin, sunflower, walnuts, almonds ), and grains (e.g., rice, pasta, corn, barley, wheat). 5. Matching exercise 1. e 2. h 3. f 4. a 5. b 6. d 7. g B. As a Group 1. Young children are not particularly fond of red meats which are typically high in iron because they tend to be more difficult to chew. Consequently, children may be at greater risk for developing iron-deficiency anemia because few other food sources provide as much absorbable iron (heme iron). 2. Alternative non-dairy calcium sources can be found in salmon, broccoli, collard greens, kale, Chinese cabbage, and soy products such as tofu and miso. However, the amount of calcium derived from these foods is significantly less than what is found in dairy products. 3. Health benefits associated with a vegetarian diet include: lowered risk of high blood pressure, cardiovascular heart disease, type 2 diabetes, colon and breast cancer; lower BMI; and lower “bad” (LDL) cholesterol among others. Specific claims are difficult to measure because there is much individual variation in the type of vegetarian diet followed. The limitations of a vegetarian diet, especially for children, again depend on the type of dietary pattern that is practiced. Nutrients most often considered to be at risk for children are vitamin B-12 (found primarily in animal products), calcium (if no dairy products are consumed), zinc, vitamin D (if exposure to sunshine is limited), and iron. 4. If a person consumes a well-balanced diet he/she will most likely get all of the required nutrients from the food. Vitamin supplements containing fat-soluble vitamins can be toxic in large amounts. On the other hand, water-soluble vitamins taken in excess of what an individual requires will simply be excreted and, thus, become expensive “insurance.” Most children probably do not need to take vitamins in supplement form unless they have a special medical condition that interferes with absorption or they are extremely picky eaters. Families should always check with the child’s physician before giving vitamin supplements to children. 5. Several factors are contributing to increased concerns about vitamin D deficiencies among children and adults, including: a) decreased sun exposure (this reduces the body’s ability to produce vitamin D); b) children are drinking less milk (and more soft drinks); and c) recommended intake levels may have originally been set too low. Researchers are discovering that vitamin D may play an important role in cancer and cardiovascular disease prevention, fighting infection, and reducing the risk of bone fractures. Vitamin D also regulates calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium deposition in bones. Sources of vitamin D include sunshine exposure and foods such as: fortified milk, cereals, juices, and margarine; salmon and tuna; and, egg yolks.