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Transcript
Zachary Jacobson
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Tinnitus: Stimulation of the auditory nerve
producing a “ringing” in the ear without an
external source.
50 million people suffer from Tinnitus in the US
At least 2 million do not respond to conventional
treatment
The US Veterans Administration alone spends $1
billion yearly for treatment of tinnitus
Tinnitus can cause sleeplessness, irritability, loss
off personal and professional relationships,
depression
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Term coined in first
century AD (tinnire) but
has been historically
recorded for 4-5 millennia
Methods of Treatment
(Past)

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Oils, saps, honey, vinegar,
earth worms, opiates
Methods of Treatment
(Current)
Overpower or mask tinnitus
sensation
 New treatments exist to
retrain the auditory cortex
through neural stimulation
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Patient receives VNS
implant
Treatment begins by
pairing tonal
arrangements with
nerve stimulation
VNS causes the
release of
neuromodulators

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Retrain the brain to
strengthen recognition
of sounds
Shrink the recognition
of tinnitus tone

Advantages
Long term relief without medication and side effects in
most cases
 Time between treatments allows patients to live a more
normal lifestyle

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Disadvantages
Takes a month to see results if any
 Problems associated with implantation
 Cost for treatment exceeds $20,000


Future
Smaller semiconductor electrodes
 External power source (RF, NIR)

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"Brain Stimulation Therapies." National Institute of Mental
Health. National Institute of Mental Health, 17 Nov. 2009. Web.
22 Apr. 2012. <http://www.nimh.nih.gov/index.shtml>.
[2] Wikipedia: Tinnitus <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/tinnitus>.
[3] "A Brief History of Neuromodulation." International
Neuromodulation Society. International Neuromodulation
Society, 2012. Web. 23 Apr. 2012.
<http://www.neuromodulation.com/about-neuromodulation>.
[4] Lozano, Andres M. "Harnessing Plasticity to Reset
Dysfunctional Neurons." The New England Journal of Medicine
364.17 (2011): 1367-368. Print.