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Zachary Jacobson Tinnitus: Stimulation of the auditory nerve producing a “ringing” in the ear without an external source. 50 million people suffer from Tinnitus in the US At least 2 million do not respond to conventional treatment The US Veterans Administration alone spends $1 billion yearly for treatment of tinnitus Tinnitus can cause sleeplessness, irritability, loss off personal and professional relationships, depression Term coined in first century AD (tinnire) but has been historically recorded for 4-5 millennia Methods of Treatment (Past) Oils, saps, honey, vinegar, earth worms, opiates Methods of Treatment (Current) Overpower or mask tinnitus sensation New treatments exist to retrain the auditory cortex through neural stimulation Patient receives VNS implant Treatment begins by pairing tonal arrangements with nerve stimulation VNS causes the release of neuromodulators Retrain the brain to strengthen recognition of sounds Shrink the recognition of tinnitus tone Advantages Long term relief without medication and side effects in most cases Time between treatments allows patients to live a more normal lifestyle Disadvantages Takes a month to see results if any Problems associated with implantation Cost for treatment exceeds $20,000 Future Smaller semiconductor electrodes External power source (RF, NIR) "Brain Stimulation Therapies." National Institute of Mental Health. National Institute of Mental Health, 17 Nov. 2009. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. <http://www.nimh.nih.gov/index.shtml>.  Wikipedia: Tinnitus <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/tinnitus>.  "A Brief History of Neuromodulation." International Neuromodulation Society. International Neuromodulation Society, 2012. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://www.neuromodulation.com/about-neuromodulation>.  Lozano, Andres M. "Harnessing Plasticity to Reset Dysfunctional Neurons." The New England Journal of Medicine 364.17 (2011): 1367-368. Print.