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Transcript
District Assessment Review
Vocab terms you should know:
Synthesize
Gene expression
Homeostasis
Correlation
Polypeptide
Complementary
Monomer
Conversion
Polymer
Saccharide
Semi-permeable
Solute
Solvent
Homologous
Cell Structure & Function
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cell Membrane
Chloroplast
Mitochondria
Nucleus
Ribosome
Golgi apparatus
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Vacuole
Lysosome
Carbohydrates
• Elements: C, H, O
• Monomer: monosaccharides
• Polymer: polysaccharides
• Function:
– Energy storage
– Identification on surface
of cell membrane
Glucose
Lipids
• Elements: C, H, some O
• Subunits: glycerol + fatty acids
• Function:
– Long term energy storage
– Main part of cell membrane
• hydrophobic
Phospholipid
Proteins
•
•
•
•
Elements: C, H, O, N
Monomer: amino acids
Polymer: polypeptide (protein)
Function:
– Make reactions and
cell processes happen
– Build bones and muscle
– fight disease
Nucleic Acids
•
•
•
•
Elements: C, H, O, N, P
Monomer: nucleotides
Polymer: DNA or RNA
Function:
- Carry genetic info
Nucleotides
Pyrimidines (DNA)
Purines (DNA)
ADP and ATP (Electron Carriers)
ATP
ADP
Energy
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate
Partially
charged
battery
Energy
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Fully
charged
battery
Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview
Section 8-3
Water
Chloroplast
CO2
Chloroplast
NADP+
ADP + P
LightDependent
Reactions
Calvin
Cycle
ATP
NADPH
O2
Sugars
Figure 9–2 Cellular Respiration: An
Section 9-1
Overview
Mitochondrion
Electrons carried in NADH
Pyruvic
acid
Glucose
Glycolysis
Krebs
Cycle
Electrons
carried in
NADH and
FADH2
Electron
Transport
Chain
Mitochondrion
Cytoplasm
Section 9-2
Flowchart
Cellular Respiration
Glucose
(C6H1206)
+
Oxygen
(02)
Glycolysis
Krebs
Cycle
Electron
Transport
Chain
Carbon
Dioxide
(CO2)
+
Water
(H2O)
Comparing Photosynthesis & Cellular
Respiration
• Cellular Respiration
6O2 + C6H12O6 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
• Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O + light→C6H12O6 + 6O2
Structure of the Cell Membrane
Outside of cell
Carbohydrate
chains
Proteins
Lipid
Bilayer
Transport
Protein
Phospholipids
Inside of cell
(cytoplasm)
Go to
Section:
Homeostasis
 Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal
state within an organism. Examples of homeostasis
in our bodies are:
 Regulation of water content
 Regulation of body temperature
 Regulation of blood glucose levels
Types of Cellular Transport
•
Passive Transport
cell doesn’t use energy
1. Diffusion
2. Facilitated Diffusion
3. Osmosis
•
Weeee!!!
high
low
Active Transport
cell does use energy
1. Protein Pumps
2. Endocytosis
3. Exocytosis
This is
gonna be
hard
work!!
high
low
Passive Transport:
1. Diffusion
Simple Diffusion
Animation
1. Diffusion: random movement of
particles from an area of high
concentration to an area of low
concentration.
(High to Low)
•
Diffusion continues until all
molecules are evenly spaced
(equilibrium is reached)-Note:
molecules will still move around but
stay spread out.
http://bio.winona.edu/berg/Free.htm
Passive Transport:
2. Facilitated Diffusion
2. Facilitated diffusion: diffusion
of specific particles through
transport proteins found in
the membrane
a. Transport Proteins are
specific – they “select” only
certain molecules to cross
the membrane
b.Transports larger or
charged molecules
A
B
Facilitated
diffusion
(Channel
Protein)
Diffusion
(Lipid
Bilayer)
Carrier Protein
Passive Transport:
3. Osmosis
Osmosis
animation
• 3.Osmosis: diffusion of
water through a
selectively permeable
membrane
• Water moves from high to
low concentrations
•Water moves freely
through pores.
•Solute (green) to large
to move across.
Types of Active Transport
1. Protein Pumps transport proteins that
require energy to do work
•Example: Sodium /
Potassium Pumps are
important in nerve
responses.
Sodium
Potassium Pumps
(Active Transport
using proteins)
Protein changes
shape to move
molecules: this
requires energy!
What type of solution are these cells in?
A
B
C
Hypertonic
Isotonic
Hypotonic
Location & Structure of DNA
• Location:
– in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
– In the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells.
• Structure:
– Double stranded (double helix)
– Composed of 3 part nucleotides:
• Deoxyribose (5 carbon sugar)
• Phosphate group (PO4)
• Note: The two alternate S-P-S-P with the nitrogen bases
always lined up on the Sugars (deoxyribose)
• Nitrogen base (1 of 4)
–
–
–
–
Adenine (A) – purine
Guanine (G) - purine
Thymine (T) – pyrimidine
Cytosine (C) - pyrimidine
DNA Replication
Can you write the corresponding
Nitrogen Base?
1. GAC TAT ATT GAC ATT GAG CCC TTA
2. ATA GAG CAC GCA TAT CCG AGT TAT
Location & Structure of RNA
• Location:
– In the nucleus
– Cytoplasm
– Ribosome
• Structure:
– Single Strand
– Nucleotides composed of:
• Ribose (5-carbon sugar)
• Phosphate group
• Nitrogen bases:
–
–
–
–
–
Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)
Cytosine (C)
Uracil (U)
RNA does not contain thymine but has uracil
Translation
Gene Mutations
• Produce changes in a single cell.
• Types:
– Point mutations – involves changes in one or a few
nucleotides and occur at a single point in the DNA
sequence.
• Substitutions – one base is changed to another; only
affects a single amino acid.
• Insertions & Deletions– a base is inserted or removed
from the DNA sequence; much more dramatic because
the genetic code is read in 3-base codons.
– Frameshift mutations – the shifting of codons & the
“reading frame” which may change every amino acid that
follows the point of the mutation. It can alter a protein so
much that it is unable to perform its normal functions.
G0
Overview of Mitosis
Parent Cell=2n
(diploid)
Daughter cell=
2n
Daughter cell=
2n
(diploid)
(diploid)
Meiosis: Overview
Parent Cell:
diploid= 2n
After Meiosis I
After
Meiosis II
Daughter Cells:
Haploid= n ; and all genetically different from each other and parent cell
1/21 Organic Compounds
18. Which of these best represents a fatty acid molecule?
1/21 Organic Compounds
20. Based on the results of a series of experiments, Joshua created the table to
summarize some of the characteristics of the chemicals needed for life.
From this information, it can be inferred that nucleic acids ___.
A.
B.
C.
D.
are larger molecules than proteins.
are necessary for a cell to make proteins from amino acids.
do not mix with water.
can be used by cells as an energy source.
1/23 Organic Compounds
21. What term best completes this analogy?
Nucleotide is to nucleic acid as ______ is to protein.
A.
B.
C.
D.
DNA
Glycerol
Amino acid
Carbohydrate
1/23 Organic Compounds
22. Which structural formula represents a polysaccharide?
A.
C.
1
4
B.
D.
2
5
1/27 Photosynthesis & Cellular
Respiration
28. The energy used to obtain, transfer, and
transport materials within an organism comes
directly from
A. ATP
B. DNA
C. Sunlight
D. starch
1/27 Photosynthesis & Cellular
Respiration
30. Which of the following correctly describes how a
diagram of cellular respiration would differ from a
diagram of photosynthesis?
F The cellular-respiration diagram would show
electromagnetic waves as the final product.
G The cellular-respiration diagram would show glucose as
the main source of energy.
H The cellular-respiration diagram would show energy
stored in large protein molecules.
J The cellular-respiration diagram would show water as
the main source of chemical energy.
1/29 Photosynthesis & Cellular
Respiration
31.
1/31 Nucleic Acids & Protein Synthesis
1/31 Nucleic Acids & Protein Synthesis
39. During the process of transcription, the strand of
messenger RNA shown below is produced.
mRNA AACUUAGGACAU
What was the original DNA template that produced this
strand?
A TTCTTAGGACAT
B UUGTTUCCUGUT
C UUGAAUCCUGUA
D TTGAATCCTGTA
2/5 Nucleic Acids & Protein Synthesis
47. A codon chart is shown below.
Which of these changes to the DNA triplet 3’ GCT 5’ will affect
the protein produced?
A GTT
C TCC
B TCT
D GCA
2/5 Nucleic Acids & Protein Synthesis
49. How does DNA in cells determine an organism’s
complex traits?
A DNA contains codes for proteins, which are
necessary for the growth and functioning of an
organism.
B DNA separates into long single strands that make
up each part of an organism.
C DNA produces the energy an organism needs in
order to grow.
D DNA folds into the nucleus of each of the cells of an
organism.
2/7 Nucleic Acids & Protein Synthesis
51. The main function of this
process is to
A provide an exact copy of the
genetic code
B ensure genetic variation in
a species
C synthesize cellular proteins
D produce antibodies to
combat disease
2/7 Nucleic Acids & Protein Synthesis
52. What does gene expression control?
A the proteins that are made by the cell
B the rate at which DNA replication occurs
C the duration between cell cycles
D the division of the cell nucleus
2/11 Cell Reproduction
55. Part of a process necessary for
reproduction in complex organisms is
represented
Step C results in the production of
A. four zygotes that will develop into
embryos
B. embryonic cells that could unite and
develop into an organism
C. four cells that will recombine to form
two offspring
D. gametes that could be involved in the
formation of a zygote
2/11 Cell Reproduction
56. Which sequence best represents sexual
reproduction?
A. mitosis → gametes → zygote → fertilization
B. gametes →meiosis →mitosis →fertilization
C. fertilization → gametes → meiosis → zygote
D. meiosis → gametes → fertilization → zygote
2/11 Cell Reproduction
59. Which of these statements best explains why meiosis is
important for sexual reproduction?
A By involving two cell divisions, meiosis ensures that offspring
receive half their genetic information from each parent.
B By involving a single cell division, meiosis ensures that
offspring are genetically identical to each other and to
the parents.
C Meiosis occurs in those cells that have already undergone
DNA replication.
D During meiosis, sister chromatids, which are genetically
different from each other, line up along the center of the
cell, and then separate into two cells.
2/13 Cell Reproduction
60. The diagram to the right represents the
cell cycle.
When cells leave the cell cycle, they exit
during G1 phase and then enter G0 phase,
a resting period. Most normal cells can
leave G0 phase and reenter the cell cycle
at G1 phase before entering S phase. Cancer
cells are different because they cannot enter G0 phase and are likely
to do which of the following?
A
B
C
D
Fail to complete S phase
Mutate during G1 phase
Repeat the cell cycle continuously
Die after completing mitosis 1
2/13 Cell Reproduction
61. The diagram below shows four stages of a cell
undergoing mitosis.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of stages
as they occur in the cell cycle?
A 1, 3, 4, 2
B 2, 1, 3, 4
C 2, 4, 3, 1
D 4, 3, 2, 1
2/13 Cell Reproduction
64. Which of these must occur during S phase of the
cell cycle so that two daughter cells can be produced
during M phase?
A The DNA must be replicated.
B The chromosomes must be joined.
C The cytoplasm must be separated.
D The cell membrane must be expanded.