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Transcript
Lecture 1
EPSY 625
MEASUREMENT THEORY
TIMELINE
Chinese
Greek
European Stat- Measure-
Exams
system
univ. exam istics meant
2000BCE
400BCE
800AD 1800AD 1900AD
2000AD
1000 BC Chinese civil service
exam



Democratic in principle: anyone could sit
for the exam
limitation: opportunity to learn; access to
schooling low for peasants
many modern issues:
• reliability: test-retest, interrater agreement
• validity: content, face, predictive
• test formats: written vs. oral
GREEK-ROMAN EDUCATION SYSTEMS


Greek emphasis on oral examination
Roman emulation of Greek systems (used
Greek slaves as teachers for private tutoring)
•

Carryover to European university systems
created about 800 AD- 1800
•

Use of papyrus for written work
Oral examinations for degrees- paper was very
expensive
Arabic university systems somewhat like
European systems in 1000-1500AD
1800
Error of Measurement astronomy & gambling

Discovery of Normal distribution
• scoring agreement among astronomers;
•
disagreements as poor work vs. individual
differences
gambling with dice or cards: statistics and
probability were invented- gambling noblemen
wanted an edge
1850
Wundt's lab physiological measurement


Measurement of human performance
and perception
jnd: just noticeable difference in
perception
WRITTEN EXAMINATIONS 1850




Cheap paper and lead pencil invented in
1840s
Written essay advocated by American
educators such as Horace Mann
Reduction in emphasis on oral
presentation, recitation
Essay examination becomes important
1880
Galton's anthropometry
human physical measurement


Measurement of human physiognomy
notion of relationships among variables:
• correlation and causation:
• ratio scaling led to Pearson’s correlation
• nominal scaling led to chi square association
1890
test"


reaction time, "mental
J.M. Cattell - child intelligence
Binet - Simon - “ : individual testing
• developmental perspective
• deviation at an age compared to cross-age
development

factor analysis - Spearman; concept of
construct underlying observed
measurement
1905
educational psychology
- Thorndike



learning and assessment
First educational psychology text- 1906
1914 text topics:
• The Original Nature of Man
• The Psychology of Learning
• Individual Differences and Their Causes
• sex and race
• ancestry (genetics) or family etc.
1920s

IQ testing from WW I
• need to classify men efficiently for military
•


Group testing
duties
need to assess large numbers: group testing
attitude assessment - Thurstone Chave
Fisher ANOVA (beginning of
experimental design)
1930s



Theory development
Thurstone and Likert: assessment of
affect, methodology
KR-20, Rulon, etc. internal consistency
Spearman-Brown: prediction of test
characteristics
1940s



More theory
Hoyt’s reliability using ANOVA
Guttman scaling of attitude
Decision theory and WWII
1950s




Computer-based analysis
Cronbach’s alpha- pulling theory
together
construct validity - Cronbach, Meehl
multitrait-multimethod validity MacCorquodale
1960s Computers and
statistics





latent trait theory- Rasch
formalized true score theory - Lord &
Novick
covariance structure analysis - Jorekog
multidimensional scaling - Torgeson
latent partition analysis - Wiley
1970s





generalizability theory- Cronbach
criterion-referenced testing (CRT)
bias in testing theory, differential item
function (DIF)
2- and 3- parameter latent trait models Lord
statewide assessments: “minimum
competency”
1980s multitrait linear logistic
model - Embretson



Multitrait linear logistic modelEmbretson
Item-individual interaction:
cognitive function
task demand
item function
(Mislevy, Willson)
Development of testing standards
1990s




Web-based assessment
Automated response: web testing,
computer adaptive testing
AI systems
widespread use of measurement model
in quantitative theory (Structural
equation modeling)
accountability systems based on testing
2000s




HIGH STAKES TESTING
AND RESEARCH
No Child Left Behind
Multilevel modeling (HLM)
Federal testing requirements for US
States
Great demands on testing industry to
develop many tests