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History of Architecture
The word Vastu is derived from sanscrit meaning a dwelling or house with a corresponding plot
of land. Vastu shastra is an ancient nomadic way of architecture prevailing in the eastern society.
It (literally, science of dwelling) is ancient Sanskrit manuals of architecture.
”It is creating a congenial settings or a place to live or work, in most scientific way taking
advantages of the benefits bestowed by the five elements called "Paanchbhootas" of the nature
thereby paving the way for enhanced health, wealth, prosperity and happiness in an enlightened
environment. “
It is the science of directions that combines all the five elements of nature (i.e., air, fire, water,
space, and wind) and balances them with the man and the material. Vastu guides to walk along
the positive vibes or eaves produced by those elements. In order to swing our life in the
resonating waves emitted by those naturally occurring elements we need to follow rules of vastu
while constructing every structure which is connected to us.
It is the balance of the energy between us ,this energy emanates from five separate elements that
make up our surroundings, earth (prithivi,water,(jal), fire(agni),air (vayu)and space (akash).It is
concerned about balancing the positive and negative energies in our surrounding. To create the
positive energy vastu suggest balancing the man and material with nature. It is universal and
secular. Its result is immediate and effective. Because of Vastu Shastra whole universe gets good
health, happiness, and all of the round prosperity.
Architecture is an importance science which is based on numbers and mathematics. But
Vaastushastra is much larger than the Architecture. It is a natural Science which is very vast, and
immense. According to mayamata vastu refers to dwelling places of every mortal. Mayan is
considered as a pioneerer of the vastu shastra. Using this shastra he had build the famous
architecture of lanka . the initation of the vastu shastra was from the hindu architecture.later the
largertowns like ayoydhas,kashi were all based on the vastu purusha mandala also known as
town planning mandala at that time.
History of Architecture
Later the influence of vastu came in the construction of the Indian as well as neplai temples .
Nowadays people are more fascinated about vastu and started using it during the construction of
residence. In the history of Nepal we can see Malla architect using vastu shastra as well as the
principle of Tripura sundari Mandala while constructing beautiful temples.
The starting of Vaastushastra is done from the place from where the building has to be
constructed. First of all, we should have correct and full knowledge of all the eight directions of
the plot, on which the construction is to be done. Until, we have correct knowledge of direction,
we cannot have right idea about the nature of the plot. East, West, North, South are the four main
directions. The middle directions of these four directions are called co-sister directions.
These are also four:
(1) Ishan - North East.
(2) Way ova - North West.
(3) Agneya - South East.
(4) Nairithya - South West.
Some of the rules given by the Vastu are :
o South west corner is a place where Master bed room should be constructed.
o Toilets should not be kept in north east direction as it is the main point of the flow
of positive energy.
o Courtyard system houses are preferred and the central part iss dedicated to lord
o If we read by facing north direction we can have a great memory power.
o Construction of the house on the dead end should be avoided.
o While sleeping we should should not sleep keeping our head in north direction
and many more too.
History of Architecture
People have felt that if we construct the house by considering all the rules of vastu we’ll have a
better and happy life; which is not true all the time. So we should first of all free ourselves from
the conservative thinking towards vastu and follow its rules consciously.
With the increasing desires of man in modern times, the ancient culture and behaviour patterns
are losing their importance. However with the attraction Vaastushastra is getting these days, it
appears that man has come to know the importance of his ancient cultural values.
The importance of Vaastushastra has augmented in modern times. Vaastushastra deals with all
aspects of construction of a house, and its edicts are accurate. The complete wisdom of
Vaastushastra is based on scientific facts. It takes in view harmony with nature. It considers
Sunrays, gravitational force, magnetic power, geographical condition, the five elements, and
directions besides all other natural phenomena that may have a bearing upon a house.
Vaastushastra equally plays a significant role in commercial places, be it a trading house, hotel,
commercial complex, cinema hall, factory, etc. In a residential building, the main purpose behind
the application of principles of Vaastushastra is to evade destructive forces of nature and to blend
constructive forces to enable inmates of a building lead a happy, peaceful and prosperous life. If
some defects have crept in construction of a house, because of ignorance or otherwise, they may
be rectified with due prudence with the help of its principles. These remedies would certainly
make life better.
It is based on the grid system where the designations for 32 pada devatas are placed. Every
Indian as well as nepali temple follows the same grid pattern. Vaastu also suggest the location of
the particular rooms. These may be sometimes very be problematic as per the site condition, so
we canot fully follow the rules of vastu while constructing house.
”The Vastushstra principles are based upon movement of the Sun and Earth. So the directional
rules and regulation differs as per the location across the globe.” The use of Vastu
shastra and Vastu consultants in modern home and public projects is controversial.
History of Architecture
History of Architecture
History of Architecture
History of Architecture
Michelangelo said that the Pantheon “must have been designed by angels, not humans.”
Pantheon is the best preserved building from ancient Rome and was completed in c. 125 CE in
the reign of Hadrian. The word Pantheon is derived from the Ancient Greek "Pantheon"
meaning "of, relating to, or common to all the gods".
Its magnificent dome is a lasting testimony to the genius of Roman architects and as the building
stands virtually intact it offers a unique opportunity for the modern visitor to step back 2,000
years and experience the glory that was Rome. Until, the 20th century, the Pantheon was the
largest concrete structure in the world. The poet Shelley called it “The unmeasured dome of
The Pantheon was dedicated to pan theos, "all the gods." When it became a church, it was
dedicated to the Virgin Mary and all the martyrs. The Pantheon was originally built in 27-25 BC
by the magistrate Marcus Agrippa (his name appears on the inscription outside), to
commemorate the victory of Actium over Antony and Cleopatra. This original temple burned
down in 80 AD. The second temple was dedicated to every known god, from which the Pantheon
gets its name. Hadrian himself is credited with the basic plan, an architectural design that was
unique for the time.
The form of pantheon is somehow puzzling; the combination of huge porticos over gigantic
domes forming the principal parts of the building. The porch is based on the very classical
Greek style and the circular main building which is more roman in style.An inscription on the
porch attributing the construction to Agrippa.The porch is eight columns wide and three deep
and the unfluted monolithic columns are imitations from the Egyptian architecture and have
History of Architecture
fused with the Corinthian capitals.They support an entablature which carries the inscription and
pediments which may originally have had a bronze eagle relief.
The circular building is built with brick and concrete but was originally faced with white marble
stucco to match the porch in appearance. The dome is concrete with the external surface
originally covered in bronze. The whole building stands on a 1.3 m high base which originally
extended a further 7 meters in front of the colonnade, steps in Numidia yellow marble from the
outer ends of this base.
The Pantheon may well be the first building from Classical architecture where the interior is
deliberately made to outshine the exterior. “The circular part of the building or rotunda was
entranced via two bronze doors measuring 12 x 7.5. And rotunda measures 43.2 m in diameter
which is exactly the maximum height of the dome, itself a perfect hemisphere. At the very top of
the dome is an opening to the sky (oculus) which is 8.8 m in diameter and has a decorative
bronze sheet frieze. The dome is made from a light tufa and scoria (a type of pumice) mix of
concrete and its interior is further lightened by five rings of 28 coffers which reduce in size as
they rise towards the centre of the dome. These may have been originally covered in bronze
sheets. The wall of the rotunda is 6 metres thick and has seven alcoves which are alternatively
semi-circular and rectangular. “
The material used to build the Pantheon was mainly of brick and concrete. This concrete is a
mixture of mortar with small stones that is mixed with limestone (travertine), bricks and other
materials. The Romans were aware of the heavy nature of their buildings. So as they build the
Pantheon, lighter materials were used as the building rises higher and higher. This use of lighter
materials on top alleviated the immense weight of the dome. The series of arches were mainly
built by using bricks. Its interior is further lightened by five rings of 28 coffers which reduce in
size as they rise towards the center of the dome. The structure’s weight is channeled through the
piers to its foundation.
The form of the Pantheon is derived from the circle and square in plan and section view. The
Pantheon’s design begins with a square subdivided into a grid. Certain points of the grid intersect
circles. Pantheon likewise starts out with a subdivided grid. With the touch of culture and belief,
the structure and form become more sophisticated behind.
History of Architecture
Interior of roof intended to symbolize arched vault of heavens.Great Eye at dome's apex are the
only source of all light so it is regarded as symbolic of sun. It is also used for cooling and
ventilation method .Weight of dome is concentrated on ring of voussoirs (30 ft) in diameter
which form oculus while downward thrust of dome is carried by 8 barrel vaults in 20 ft thick
drum wall into 8 piers.Thickness of dome varies from 21 ft at base to 4 ft around oculus
consisting cylindrical drums on which the dome sands have several voids. These voids rises to
the second storey behind attic, and there are also hidden voids above them and between them.
Roman are able to reduce the whole size of the dome by using various techniques like voiding
the chambers, coffers ceilings, and also by the nature of cementation resulting to the reduction of
density of it.
Traditionally the interior of the pantheon is divided into three portions. The lower most section is
all dedicated to the gods (roman gods). And the middle section is dedicated to the zodiac and the
uppermost section i.e. dome is dedicated to the universe (heaven). According to Sigfried
Giedian,Pantheon reperesent the second space concept,where interior are used and well
decorated. Pantheon remains one of the outstanding buildings of the world, despite centries of
low maintenance. Pantheon is enriched by mosaics,(now gone), marble revetment,and inlaid
floors. Roman Architecture manipulated light with as much enthusiasm as it did space, and in
this interior the two are welded in an impressive manner.
Since the intellectual concept of the Pantheon’s interioris so very simple(a cyloindertopped by
ahalf sphere of the same radius –the visitor is unpreparedfor the staggering impact of the
space.)Standing at the center, one is barely aware of alternately rectangular andsemicircular
niches behind pairs of columns that enliven the lower walls. One is more conscious of the
coffering of the ceiling, leading up to the open eye at the top of the dome. It is one of the perfect
piece of art and a testimonies several roman history.
History of Architecture
History of Architecture
History of Architecture
History of Architecture
About 2150 the central Egyptian government seems to have fallen apart. Egypt once more
became a series of separate states in great confusion. During this time little building or sculpture
was done so it is considered as a dark age in the field of Egyptian architecture.
Eventually, about 2040, a central government was again organized under a strong king. King
Mentuhotep II revived the architecture of the Old Kingdom. His tomb included a courtyard,
terrace, temple, and the king's burial chamber at the end of a long passage that had been cut into
the solid rock of the cliffs and introduced a new form of architecture naming rock hewn
architecture. In other word, Rock cut architecture and rock hewn architecture means cutting deep
into the mountain rock. In middle kingdom the royal burials began to made in the hill side.
The tomb had a highly original design that was copied centuries later for Queen Hatshepsut's
famous temple. Though now badly damaged, Mentuhotep II's tomb is of great interest because it
is the oldest remaining temple at Thebes, the chief city of the south.
With the rise of King Amenemhet I about 1991, Egypt entered one of its great periods.
Amenemhet returned to the tradition of using the pyramid as the royal tomb.” His pyramid was
constructed at El Lisht, not far south of Memphis.” In general form his pyramid and those of his
successors followed the Old Kingdom style—valley temple, passageway, upper temple, and
finally the pyramid itself. Valley temple is in colonnaded form consisting small god idols, also
used for rest area, passageway are usually in the ramp form leading towards the upper temple.
Final temple consist a main burial inside the mountain. Lastly mimicry of the old kingdom,
pyramid is kept on the top terrace of the temple symbolizing heaven.
But the newer pyramids were smaller and poorly constructed. Instead of the great stone blocks
used earlier, these Middle Kingdom pyramids were often built of mud brick covered with
limestone. The limestone was always stolen, and the brick pyramids crumbled into huge mounds.
And, despite efforts to protect them, the royal burial chambers in these pyramids were all robbed.
History of Architecture
In this period the best tombs built by wealthy nobles were cut into great rock cliffs. The most
famous are at Beni Hasan in Middle Egypt, on the east side of the Nile. These tombs are fully
rock hewn, each consist chamber behind a porticoed façade plainly imitating wooden
construction in the character of the eight or sixteen sided, slightly fluted and tapered columns.
The tombs are based upon trabeated system and have columned entryways and halls. The inside
walls are covered with paintings and relief sculptures.
Huge statues of kings were produced at this time in granite and other hard stones. Some statues
were so oversized that they could not fit inside the temples but had to be placed in the open air
outside the Smaller royal statues were sometimes made in wood. Statuettes of human and animal
figures were made of ivory and semiprecious stones.
The Great Temple of Abu- Simbel is also one of the known rock- hewn temples of Egypt
commanded by the indefatigable Rameses II. An entrance forecourt leads to the imposing façade,
36 m ( 119 ft. ) wide and 32 m ( 105 ft. ) high formed as pylon, immediately in front of which are
four rock-cut seated colossal statues of Rameses, over 20 m ( 65 ft. ) high. Huge human statutes
are referred as incarnation of god and small statuettes of his family is kept in between their huge
The tomb of the Kings,Thebes are situated in the arid of mountains on the west of the Nile. They
witnessed a complete abandonment of the royal pryramid tomb during the new kingdom in
favour of a corridor type,in which stairs,passages and chambers extended as much as 210 m
(690ft ) into the mountain side and up to 96m (315 ft) below the valley floor.The sarcophagus
usually lay in a concluding rock columned hall,and the walls were elaborately painted with
ceremonial funerary scences and religious text.The tombs served only for the sarcophagus .The
queen hatshepsut’s temple , mentuhetep ,are some of the othertemples representig rock hewn
architecture of ancient Egypt.
These architecture can be considered as a transitional phase between first space concept and
second space concept. There is a little use of interior and decoration on the interior walls are also
done side by sidethe presence of huge statue of the king represents monumental architecture.
History of Architecture
History of Architecture
History of Architecture