Download DUCURS poster 6 - eScholarShare

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Hygiene hypothesis wikipedia , lookup

Childhood immunizations in the United States wikipedia , lookup

Vaccination wikipedia , lookup

Infection wikipedia , lookup

Sociality and disease transmission wikipedia , lookup

Neonatal infection wikipedia , lookup

Hospital-acquired infection wikipedia , lookup

Transmission (medicine) wikipedia , lookup

Onchocerciasis wikipedia , lookup

Infection control wikipedia , lookup

Germ theory of disease wikipedia , lookup

Neglected tropical diseases wikipedia , lookup

African trypanosomiasis wikipedia , lookup

Schistosomiasis wikipedia , lookup

Globalization and disease wikipedia , lookup

Plasmodium falciparum wikipedia , lookup

Mariamawit Yilma,Naomi Adjei and John N. Gitua (Mentor)
Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Science
Drake University
Malaria is the most prevalent disease in Asia, Africa, Central and
South America. Malaria is a serious, sometimes fatal disease caused
by a parasite that is spread to humans through the bite of infected
mosquitoes. The disease is a major health problem in tropic and sub
tropical countries and the CDC estimates 300 -500 million new cases
of malaria each year which results in the death of more than 1 million
people. The most vulnerable to malaria infection include children less
than five years of age, pregnant women and individuals with little
resistance to malaria. Our study in this area is centered on the
challenges involved in the prevention and cure of this disease as well
as the opportunities now available in combating the spread of the
malaria disease.
Malaria is most prevalent in Asia, Africa and Central and South
America. The disease is a major health problem in tropics and sub
tropics. CDC estimates 300 -500 cases of malaria each year and
results in the death of more than 1 million people. This is hazardous
for people living in warm climates where stagnant water creates
suitable environment for the growth and development of mosquito.
Transmission starts from the bite of infected female mosquito.
Plasmodium infection comes in four forms: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P.
ovale and P. malariae. Plasmodium causes destruction to the red
blood cells leading to effects of malaria such as chills, fever jaundice
and anemia amongst others. Other ways in which malaria can be
transmitted includes blood borne, congenital and cryptic methods.
The prevalence of malaria had not been eradicated in the past
years due to numerous challenges that catalyzed its contagion.
The major rationale includes lack of proper health care
infrastructures and qualified health care professionals. Temperate
areas have high infection rates due to warm temperature that
facilitates the breeding of mosquitoes in stagnant water sites.
Malaria has many symptoms similar to other diseases such as flu
and TB, as a result, misdiagnosis leads to treatment with wrong
medication and this prolongs the parasites elimination. Lack of
general public education about the cause, transmission and
prevention of the disease also hinders its eradication.
People living in areas where malaria is most prevalent can prevent the
disease by clearing out stagnant water. Wearing protective clothing over
the arm and legs, using screens on windows and insect repellant like
insecticides also aid in decrease of mosquito bites and prevention of
malaria. In addition nutrition plays a crucial role in strengthening the
immune system. A balanced diet rich in Vitamins and minerals such as
Vitamin A, Zinc and Iron reduces the weakening of the immune system and
intensifies resistance against any opportunistic diseases.
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum can be treated
effectively if medical intervention is made early. Chloroquine is the
most frequently used anti-malarial medication. Quinidine or
quinine, doxycycline, tetracycline or Clindamycein or atovaquone,
Proguanil (Malarone) or Mefloquine or atresunate or combination
of Pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine are given for Chloriquine –
resistant infections. Intravenous fluids (IV) and respiratory and
other medications are given in extreme cases. The recently
discovered ACT Therapy (Anti–malarial drugs in Artemisinin
combination Therapies) is most effective way of treating malaria.
It has been difficult to eradicate malaria in Africa due to wars, over
population in many areas and rapid movements of citizens and
incoming refugees. DDT was successful in eradication of
mosquito but its toxic effect on humans led to its ban.
Chloroquine use was ineffective due to resistant by the parasites.
New forms of treatment such as ACT (Artemisinin-derived
medication) have been developed where a combination of drugs
are used to cure malaria. In addition, antimalarial vaccines are in
development stages. However, the major problem in developing
countries is the poverty in addition to poor health infrastructure.
As a result most people have relied on traditional drugs usually
made form herbs. Some problems involved in failure of malaria
treatments are misdiagnosis, incomplete drug dosage, poor social
economic conditions, inadequate health care and many others.
People with sickle cell anemia and people living in high malaria
transmission areas have immunity against the malaria disease.
Eradication of Malaria requires special attention from the society.
Awareness about the cause, transmission and prevention of the
disease should be done by employing general education and
improvement of health care infrastructures should be given
highest priority so as to reduce the escalating malaria infection
and death rates.